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Inside IBM: The Inventors Who Are Creating the Era of Cognitive Computing

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How many times have you been raving about a great movie and, suddenly, you draw a blank on the star actor’s name? Don’t worry, it happens to everybody. Well, in the not-too-distant future, when you get hung up, you may get a timely assist from a computer—one smart enough to complete your sentences for you.

Key stats from today's announcement

Key stats from today’s announcement

Or, on a more serious note, consider the problems confronted by people with Alzheimer’s, dementia or other cognitive impairments. They often find themselves confused and at a loss for words. What if a computer could finish their thoughts for them—or even help them complete a task like getting dressed or fixing breakfast?

Both of these scenarios are addressed by a new cognitive technology conceived of by three IBMers who were inspired by their desire to help people who suffer from Alzheimer’s. “We talked about how disturbing these problems are for people, and we realized that cloud-based cognitive technologies could make a big difference,” says James Kozloski, an IBM Research scientist who developed the idea along with colleagues Irina Rish and Clifford Pickover.

The invention landed them one of 7,355 patents that IBMers were awarded last year by the US Patent & Trademark Office—a tally that for the 23rd consecutive year ranked IBM as the world’s most innovative company.

IBM’s work in cognitive computing emerged as a major factor last year. More than 800 of IBM’s 2015 patents are related to cognitive computing, a 52% increase from the previous year.

IBM has realigned its entire business strategy around the promise of cognitive computers, which can learn, reason, and efficiently process diverse data types all while interacting with people in natural and familiar ways. These technologies are designed to augment human intelligence—potentially transforming industries, professions, and, ultimately, all of society.

The rapid rise of cognitive computing, along with exciting advances in cloud, analytics, data security, and mobility, have unleashed an outpouring of creativity among IBM’s scientists and engineers. IBM Research has 3,000 professionals in 12 labs around the world, and the company employs 10s of thousands of software programmers, hardware engineers and industry-focused consultants. From that deep pool of talent, 8,500 IBMers landed US patents last year. They live all over the place–50 states and US territories and 46 countries. IBM inventors who reside outside the United States contributed to more than 36% of the 2015 patents.

Patent Leadership_1-12-16-Part 2v2James Kozloski recalls that the memory assistance invention emerged when he, Irina and Cliff were batting around ideas at a table in the cafeteria at the IBM Research lab in Yorktown, N.Y. The three schedule regular meetings there to cross-pollinate and brainstorm innovations. On this day, they were thinking about new enhancements for the IBM Watson question answering technology—and they knew people with Alzheimer’s. Why not use Watson to help deal with that? Says James: “This is a great example of how inventors can take what is obviously going to be a major innovation and use their own expertise to take it in a new direction.”

The idea is to combine a handful of technologies, including machine learning and Bayesian reasoning, to create a highly sophisticated app that understands the user and their environment and detects when they’re struggling with expressing themselves or with getting a task done. The system will create a hypothesis about what the person means to say or do next in a particular context. Then it will suggest words or sentences, or will prompt the person to take the next step in their task.

You can also imagine this kind of capability being used to help just about anybody when they suffer a memory freeze—like forgetting that actor Kevin Spacey played the sly criminal mastermind Keyser Soze in The Usual Suspects.

For James, inventing is second nature. A scientist in IBM Research’s computation and applied neuroscience group, he has landed 37 patents in his 15 years at IBM—helping him to achieve the designation of IBM Master Inventor.

On the other end of the spectrum of experience among IBM inventors is Jeremy Greenberger, who turned 24 on Monday. He was not yet born when IBM began its unprecedented record of patent leadership.

IBM software engineer Jeremy Greenberg, 23, sketches out a patent he has pending at the company's headquarter's in Research Triangle Park, NC. (Jared Lazarus/Feature Photo Service for IBM)

IBM software engineer Jeremy Greenberger sketches out a patent he has pending. (Jared Lazarus/Feature Photo Service for IBM)

Jeremy came to IBM just 1 ½ years ago with a freshly-minted BS in computer science from the University of South Carolina. But, already, he’s making his mark as a prodigious ideas man. He has submitted 60 invention ideas for internal IBM review, of which 18 have so far been approved for patent applications and 6 have been submitted to the US PTO.

Jeremy was fascinated with both technology and business starting as a teenager growing up in northern New Jersey. He and his father, a dentist, started their own company on the side when he was 16—a digital advertising business. He hadn’t decided for sure that what he really wanted to do was be an inventor until he arrived at IBM’s offices in Durham, North Carolina, and started working on mobile and cloud technologies. All around him, people had hung plaques on their cubicles commending them for their patents. He wanted that for himself.

He credits a couple of IBM Master Inventors for helping him learn the ropes; first John Gerken, and, later, Lisa Seacat Deluca, who has more than 150 patents and is IBM’s most prolific female inventor ever.

He can remember the day, Feb. 24, 2015, when he got received his first notification that IBM planned on filing a patent application for one of his inventions. “I was so excited,” he says. “I looked at the document and thought: ‘This is my idea, and it could help change the world!’”

Now Jeremy is on fire. His goal is nothing less than to become the youngest-ever IBM Master Inventor. By his calculations, he has a little over two years in which to make it.

Even though James Kozloski has 15 years at IBM under his belt, he’s no less enthusiastic than Jeremy about the potential for innovation here. His PhD was in neuroscience and he has been focusing in recent years on modeling the human brain. There have been tremendous advances in neuroscience and computational biology over the past decade, and, now, the two branches of science are fast converging—with tremendous implications, including the ability to develop sophisticated cognitive assistants for human beings.

“Research is for people who have the patience to explore the big questions,” James says. “We’re the stubborn ones who want to find the answers and to make the big changes in the world.”


To learn more about the new era of computing, read Smart Machines: IBM’s Watson and the Era of Cognitive Computing.

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Jorge Mendes

Thumbs up!


Rachel Yulo

Proud of the accomplishments that IBM Research achieves. Your work and ideas are truly amazing and inspiring. Proud to be an IBMer. Jeremy – I hope you achieve your goal to be the youngest IBM Master Inventor. By achieving that goal, you’ll surely inspire other young minds in the future to the same task which is a benefit to our company!



Great Achievements, KUDOS to IBM team!



Kudos to you, Jeremy! I have a new name for you….’Blue’berger…



That’s amazing!! Congrats!


Bryan Boyle

Wow. This makes me even more proud to call these great minds colleagues! Way to go, folks!


Anandan K

Amazing! Congrats to the Inventors!



when will be able to see more signings and revenue from all these.. and increase in the share price.. ??


Banavar V Sheshadri

Wow ! Great Accomplishment. Congratulations.
Keep it Up.



INCREDIBLE ! Kudos to all. Very proud to be an IBMer.


R Nagarajan

Well done.Congrats !!!


Bhalchandra Waykole

Its great achievement. Cheers.


Dhiraj Kumar

Hi Team,
Really its great to know the number of IBM patents adding new number every year. Even I am interested in research and development kind program. I have published some of my research papers in International and National Journals and have received many recognition by eminent persons and scientist.I want to continue my work further therefore, I wish to join in research and development group. Please provide the procedure.


    Stephen Hamm

    Dhiraj, There is an IBM Research office in India run by Ramesh Gopinath
    Director, IBM Research – India, Chief Technologist, India – South Asia
    Bangalore, India +91dash80dash67043910



Amazing work IBM inventors!


Hussein Kamal Eldin

Great Work, it always amaze me how innovation can and do change people life and the world, being part of such company and a colleague to such great people makes me happy.

Best of luck James and Jeremy and all inventors out there…


David Van Vliet

Great Job Jeremy!



Thats Great !!



Proud to be an IBMer!


Maria Tereza Boor

This is amazing, so much accomplished! Congratulations to all inventors.

Can someone explain to me why IBM was left out for the first time of prestigious Top 100 Global Innovators issued last November by Thomson&Reuters despite of so many patents? I do not get it.



Great job!! Again!


Tiffany Smith

Great article! I loved reading about the innovative talent at IBM, especially 24 year old Jeremy. Go Blue!


Donna Gibson

Proud to work for a company that promotes innovation! Congrats to all IBMers who were awarded patents this year! #ProudIBMer


Chelsea Boling

Amazing work!



We live in exiting times.


Julie Cucinotta

Amazing- Congrats!



Excellent, IBM still ahead in this area…


Sailaja Bandlamoori

What an amazing story about these exceptional people and their invention ! Great job IBM team!


Rathna Kumar

Amazing work, proud to be an Ibmer


Su Liu

That’s a great news


K P Varghese

It feels great to be part of this legacy of no 1 for last 23 years.


Ka Keng Lee

23 years of patent leadership! How amazing is that!


Laura Facalet

Proud to be Blue! Congrats!


Alistair Rosario

Thank you Stephen Hamm for sharing this Information. Without a doubt the two Prodigious IBMers Jeremy Greenberger and James Kozloski I am Fan of both you Guys….!



I know myself someone who’s suffering from dementia. What a great idea to use Watson to help them. We really change the world with patents like this. My congratulations to you. You make me proud to be an IBMer.





Bernardo Rico

Congratulations, … Sure we have an amazing Team !


Paul Weiss

This is awesome and I am proud to be one of contributors to the record. Lets keep the record going – GOIBM!


Karl Sandreuter

Fantastic Competitive and Vital Edge! Wonderful accomplishments to ensure ALL our Clients are aware of!


Ravikant Sharma

Proud to be an IBMer


Deborah Pipes



Ashutosh Kumar Jha

Superb Achievement and it makes all IBMers Proud !!!



Thats excellent. Great achievement. Proud to be an IBMer.





Venkateswaran E

Proud to be an IBMer.. Well done R&D Team!!


Jyoti Mehra

Amazing use of Cognitive Computing !


Venkataramana Bora

IBM # 1 in Patents for 23 years,this is really great and inspirational.Standing by our value no 2:Innovation that matters – for our company and for the world.Congratulations to all those inventors!


Samrat Shaw

Proud moment for IBmers…great work by IBM team.


Thrinesh MN

Good to hear. Thumbs Up:)



Great article, Really it is amazing to know about these people and especially about Jeremy and his innovation at this age. Excellent


Massimo Nourzai

Great Job!


Saeid Mohseni

Well Done Team IBM!


Subrahmanyam Peddada

This is amazing


Pam Ryder

Amazing! If you have been in the company of anyone who has dementia or Alzheimer’s this is truly exciting!


Martin Oberhofer

This is cool! Keep going for the next 77 years to celebrate eventually a 100 years of patent leadership 🙂



wonderful achievements!! keep it up IBMers!


Anna Daria

Finishing my sentences and reminding me of what I forget, just like a soulmate huh!

Congrats! This is promising!


N K Sharma

Great to know how Cognitive Computing in IBM is helping address very relevant medical problems.



‘m proud to work with such great company


Kaniraj Raja

Great Accomplishments.. Kudos to Team..



Just Amazing,Congrats!


Steve Mastrianni

Miss working with Cliff, Jim, and others. Need my mojo back.


[…] of the minds creating the innovative ideas that are helping to build the Cognitive Computing era. Read the story and be inspired at some of the […]


Roger Osorio

Very exciting developments! Congrats on the progress thus far.

Please encourage Jeremy to focus on the groundbreaking value he can create through his patents and not on the patents themselves. I would imagine someone like Lisa Deluca didn’t get to > 150 patents by focusing on just patents. For IBM to take cognitive computing to the next level it will need people like Jeremy, Lisa, and others all running after the same vision of the cognitive future – oh and along the way they will no doubt rack up the patents without even focusing on it.

Michael Jordan didn’t chase player of the week or month awards, nor did he chase top scorer, etc. He ran after championships and as a consequence racked up the awards.

Good luck to the team!

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