The Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) is an XML architecture for extensible technical information. A domain extends DITA with a set of elements whose names and content models are unique to an organization or field of knowledge. Architects and authors can combine elements from any number of domains, leading to great flexibility and precision in capturing the semantics and structure of their information. In this overview, you'll learn how to define your own domains.
Introducing domain specialization
In DITA, the topic is the basic unit of processable content. The topic
provides the title, metadata, and structure for the content. Some topic
types provide very simple content structures. For example, the
concept topic has a single concept body for all
of the concept content. By contrast, a
topic articulates a structure that distinguishes pieces of the task
content, such as the prerequisites, steps, and results.
In most cases, these topic structures contain content elements that are not
specific to the topic type. For example, both the concept body and the
task prerequisites permit common block elements such as
p paragraphs and
Domain specialization lets you define new types of content elements
independently of topic type. That is, you can derive new phrase or block
elements from the existing phrase and block elements. You can use a
specialized content element within any topic structure where its base
element is allowed. For instance, because a
paragraph can appear within a concept body or task prerequisite, a
specialized paragraph could appear there, too.
Figure 1. Specialized content can be inserted in topic bodies
Here's an analogy from the kitchen. You might think of topics as types of containers for preparing food in different ways, such as a basic frying pan, blender, and baking dish. The content elements are like the ingredients that go into these containers, such as spices, flour, and eggs. The domain resembles a specialty grocer who provides ingredients for a particular cuisine. Your pot might contain chorizo from the carnicerÃa when you're cooking Tex-Mex or risotto when you're cooking Italian. Similarly, your topics can contain elements from the programming domain when you're writing about a programming language or elements from the UI domain when you're writing about a GUI application.
DITA has broad tastes, so you can mix domains as needed. If you're describing how to program GUI applications, your topics can draw on elements from both the programming and UI domains. You can also create new domains for your content. For instance, a new domain could provide elements for describing hardware devices. You can also reuse new domains created by others, expanding the variety of what you can cook up.
In a more formal definition, topic specialization starts with the containing element and works from the top down. Domain specialization, on the other hand, starts with the contained element and works from the bottom up.
Understanding the base domains
A DITA domain collects a set of specialized content elements for some purpose. In effect, a domain provides a specialized vocabulary. With the base DITA package, you receive the following domains:
|highlight||To highlight text with styles such as bold, italic, and monospace|
|programming||To define the syntax and give examples of programming languages|
|software||To describe the operation of a software program|
|UI||To describe the user interface of a software program|
In most domains, a specialized element adds semantics to the base element.
For example, the
apiname element of the
programming domain extends the basic
element with the semantic of a name within an API.
The highlight domain is a special case. The elements in this domain provide styled presentation instead of semantic or structural markup. The highlight styles give authors a practical way to mark up phrases for which a semantic has not been defined.
Providing such highlight styles through a domain resolves a long-standing dispute for publication DTDs. Purists can omit the highlight domain to enforce documents that should be strictly semantic. Pragmatists can include the highlight domain to provide expressive flexibility for real-world authoring. A semipragmatist could even include the highlight domain in conceptual documents to support expressive authoring, but omit the highlight domain from reference documents to enforce strict semantic tagging.
More generally, you can define documents with any combination of domains and topics. As shown in Generalizing a domain, the resulting documents can still be exchanged.
Combining an existing topic and domain
The DITA package provides a DTD for each topic type and an omnibus DTD
ditabase.dtd) that defines all of the topic
types. Each of these DTDs includes all of the predefined DITA domains.
Thus, topics written against one of the supplied DTDs can use all of the
predefined domain specializations.
Behind the scenes, a DITA DTD is just a shell. Elements are actually defined in other modules, which are included in the DTD. Through these modules, DITA provides you with the building blocks to create new combinations of topic types and domains.
When you add a domain to your DITA installation, the new domain provides you with additional modules. You can use the additional modules to incorporate the domain into the existing DTDs or to create new DTDs.
In particular, each domain is implemented with two files:
- A file that declares the entities for the domain. This file has
- A file that declares the elements for the domain. This file has
As an example, suppose that you're authoring the reference topics for a programming language. You're a purist about presentation, so you want to exclude the highlight domain. You also have no need for the software or UI domains in this reference. You could address this scenario by defining a new shell DTD that combines the reference topic with the programming domain, excluding the other domains.
A shell DTD has a consistent design pattern with a few well-defined sections. The instructions in these sections perform the following actions:
Declare the entities for the domains. In the scenario, this section would include the programming domain entities:
<!ENTITY % pr-d-dec PUBLIC "-//IBM//ENTITIES DITA Programming Domain//EN" "programming-domain.ent"> %pr-d-dec;
- Redefine the entities for the base content elements to add the
specialized content elements from the domains.
This section is crucial for domain specialization. Here, the design pattern makes use of two kinds of entities. Each base content element has an element entity to identify itself and its specializations. Each domain provides a separate domain specialization entity to list the specializations that it provides for a base element. By combining the two kinds of entities, the shell DTD allows the specialized content elements to be used in the same contexts as the base element.
In the scenario, the
preelement entity identifies the
preelement (which, as in HTML, contains preformatted text) and its specializations. The programming domain provides the
pr-d-predomain specialization entity to list the specializations for the
prebase element. The same pattern is used for the other base elements specialized by the programming domain:
<!ENTITY % pre "pre | %pr-d-pre;"> <!ENTITY % keyword "keyword | %pr-d-keyword;"> <!ENTITY % ph "ph | %pr-d-ph;"> <!ENTITY % fig "fig | %pr-d-fig;"> <!ENTITY % dl "dl | %pr-d-dl;">
To learn which content elements are specialized by a domain, you can look at the entity declaration file for the domain.
domainsattribute of the topic elements to declare the domains represented in the document.
domainsattribute identifies dependencies. While the
classattribute identifies base elements, the
domainsattribute identifies the domains available within a topic. Each domain provides a domain identification entity to identify itself in the
In the scenario, the only topic is the
referencetopic. The only domain is the programming domain, which is identified by the
pr-d-attdomain identification entity:
<!ATTLIST reference domains CDATA "&pr-d-att;">
Redefine the infotypes entity to specify the topic types that can be nested within a topic.
In the scenario, this section declares the
<!ENTITY % info-types "reference">
Define the elements for the topic type, including the base topics.
In the scenario, this section includes the base topic and reference topic modules:
<!ENTITY % topic-type PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Topic//EN" "topic.mod"> %topic-type; <!ENTITY % reference-typemod PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Reference//EN" "reference.mod"> %reference-typemod;
Define the elements for the domains.
In the scenario, this section includes the programming domain definition module:
<!ENTITY % pr-d-def PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Programming Domain//EN" "programming-domain.mod"> %pr-d-def;
Often, it is easiest to work by copying an existing DTD and adding or
removing topics or domains. In the scenario, you can start with
reference.dtd and remove the highlight,
software, and UI domains as indicated with the bold, highlighted text
<!ENTITY % ui-d-dec PUBLIC "-//IBM//ENTITIES DITA User Interface Domain//EN" "ui-domain.ent"> %ui-d-dec; <!ENTITY % hi-d-dec PUBLIC "-//IBM//ENTITIES DITA Highlight Domain//EN" "highlight-domain.ent"> %hi-d-dec;
<!ENTITY % pr-d-dec PUBLIC "-//IBM//ENTITIES DITA Programming Domain//EN" "programming-domain.ent"> %pr-d-dec;
<!ENTITY % sw-d-dec PUBLIC "-//IBM//ENTITIES DITA Software Domain//EN" "software-domain.ent"> %sw-d-dec;
<!--vocabulary substitution--> <!ENTITY % pre "pre | %pr-d-pre; | %sw-d-pre;"> <!ENTITY % keyword "keyword | %pr-d-keyword; | %sw-d-keyword; | %ui-d-keyword;"> <!ENTITY % ph "ph | %pr-d-ph; | %sw-d-ph; | %hi-d-ph; | %ui-d-ph;"> <!ENTITY % fig "fig | %pr-d-fig;"> <!ENTITY % dl "dl | %pr-d-dl;"> <!--vocabulary attributes--> <!ATTLIST reference domains CDATA "(topic ui-d) (topic hi-d) (topic pr-d) (topic sw-d)"> <!--Redefine the infotype entity to exclude other topic types--> <!ENTITY % info-types "reference"> <!--Embed topic to get generic elements --> <!ENTITY % topic-type PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Topic//EN" "topic.mod"> %topic-type; <!--Embed reference to get specific elements --> <!ENTITY % reference-typemod PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Reference//EN" "reference.mod"> %reference-typemod; <!--vocabulary definitions-->
<!ENTITY % ui-d-def PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA User Interface Domain//EN" "ui-domain.mod"> %ui-d-def; <!ENTITY % hi-d-def PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Highlight Domain//EN" "highlight-domain.mod"> %hi-d-def;
<!ENTITY % pr-d-def PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Programming Domain//EN" "programming-domain.mod"> %pr-d-def;
<!ENTITY % sw-d-def PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Software Domain//EN" "software-domain.mod"> %sw-d-def;
Creating a domain specialization
For some documents, you might need new types of content elements. In a common scenario, you need to mark up phrases that have special semantics. You can handle such requirements by creating new specializations of existing content elements and providing a domain to reuse the new content elements within topic structures.
As an example, suppose that you're writing the documentation for a class library. You intend to write processes that will index the documentation by class, field, and method. To support this processing, you need to mark up the names of classes, fields, and methods within the topic content, as in the following sample:
<p>The <classname>String</classname> class provides the <fieldname>length</fieldname> field and the <methodname>concatenate()</methodname> method. </p>
You must define new content elements for these names. Because the names are
special types of names within an API, you can specialize the new elements
apiname element provided by the
The design pattern for a domain requires an abbreviation to represent the
domain. A sensible abbreviation for the class library domain might be
cl. The identifier for a domain consists of the
abbreviation followed by
-d (for domain).
As noted in Combining an existing topic and domain, the domain requires an entity declaration file and an element definition file.
Writing the entity declaration file
The entity declaration file has sections that perform the following actions:
Define the domain specialization entities.
A domain specialization entity lists the specialized elements provided by the domain for a base element. For clarity, the entity name is composed of the domain identifier and the base element name. The domain provides domain specialization entities for ancestor elements as well as base elements.
In the scenario, the domain defines a domain specialization entity for the
apinamebase element as well as the
keywordancestor element (which is the base element for
<!ENTITY % cl-d-apiname "classname | fieldname | methodname"> <!ENTITY % cl-d-keyword "classname | fieldname | methodname">
Define the domain identification entity.
The domain identification entity lists the topic type as well as the domain and other domains for which the current domain has dependencies. Each domain is identified by its domain identifier. The list is enclosed in parentheses. For clarity, the entity name is composed of the domain identifier and
In the scenario, the class library domain has a dependency on the programming domain, which provides the
<!ENTITY cl-d-att "(topic pr-d cl-d)">
The complete entity declaration file looks as follows:
<!ENTITY % cl-d-apiname "classname | fieldname | methodname"> <!ENTITY % cl-d-keyword "classname | fieldname | methodname"> <!ENTITY cl-d-att "(topic pr-d cl-d)">
Writing the element definition file
The element definition file has sections that perform the following actions:
Define the content element entities for the elements introduced by the domain.
These entities permit other domains to specialize from the elements of the current domain.
In the scenario, the class library domain follows this practice so that additional domains can be added in the future. The domain defines entities for the three new elements:
<!ENTITY % classname "classname"> <!ENTITY % fieldname "fieldname"> <!ENTITY % methodname "methodname">
Define the elements.
The specialized content model must be consistent with the content model for the base element. That is, any possible contents of the specialized element must be generalizable to valid contents for the base element. Within that limitation, considerable variation is possible. Specialized elements can be substituted for elements in the base content model. Optional elements can be omitted or required. An element with multiple occurrences can be replaced with a list of specializations of that element, and so on.
The specialized content model should always identify elements through the element entity rather than directly by name. This practice lets other domains merge their specializations into the current domain.
In the scenario, the elements have simple character content:
<!ELEMENT classname (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT fieldname (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT methodname (#PCDATA)>
Define the specialization hierarchy for the element with
For a domain element, the value of the attribute must start with a plus sign. Elements provided by domains should be qualified by the domain identifier.
In the scenario, specialization hierarchies include the
keywordancestor element provided by the base topic and the
apinameelement provided by the programming domain:
<!ATTLIST classname class CDATA "+ topic/keyword pr-d/apiname cl-d/classname "> <!ATTLIST fieldname class CDATA "+ topic/keyword pr-d/apiname cl-d/fieldname "> <!ATTLIST methodname class CDATA "+ topic/keyword pr-d/apiname cl-d/methodname ">
The complete element definition file would look as follows:
<!ENTITY % classname "classname"> <!ENTITY % fieldname "fieldname"> <!ENTITY % methodname "methodname"> <!ELEMENT classname (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT fieldname (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT methodname (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST classname class CDATA "+ topic/keyword pr-d/apiname cl-d/classname "> <!ATTLIST fieldname class CDATA "+ topic/keyword pr-d/apiname cl-d/fieldname "> <!ATTLIST methodname class CDATA "+ topic/keyword pr-d/apiname cl-d/methodname ">
Writing the shell DTD
After creating the domain files, you can write shell DTDs to combine the domain with topics and other domains. The shell DTD must include all domain dependencies.
In the scenario, the shell DTD combines the class library domain with the concept, reference, and task topics and the programming domain. The portions specific to the class library domain are highlighted below in bold:
<!--vocabulary declarations--> <!ENTITY % pr-d-dec PUBLIC "-//IBM//ENTITIES DITA Programming Domain//EN" "programming-domain.ent"> %pr-d-dec; <!ENTITY % cl-d-dec SYSTEM "classlib-domain.ent"> %cl-d-dec; <!--vocabulary substitution--> <!ENTITY % pre "pre | %pr-d-pre;"> <!ENTITY % keyword "keyword | %pr-d-keyword; | %cl-d-apiname;"> <!ENTITY % ph "ph | %pr-d-ph;"> <!ENTITY % fig "fig | %pr-d-fig;"> <!ENTITY % dl "dl | %pr-d-dl;"> <!ENTITY % apiname "apiname | %cl-d-apiname;"> <!--vocabulary attributes--> <!ATTLIST concept domains CDATA "&pr-d-att; &cl-d-att;"> <!ATTLIST reference domains CDATA "&pr-d-att; &cl-d-att;"> <!ATTLIST task domains CDATA "&pr-d-att; &cl-d-att;"> <!--Redefine the infotype entity to exclude other topic types--> <!ENTITY % info-types "concept | reference | task"> <!--Embed topic to get generic elements --> <!ENTITY % topic-type PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Topic//EN" "topic.mod"> %topic-type; <!--Embed topic types to get specific topic structures--> <!ENTITY % concept-typemod PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Concept//EN" "concept.mod"> %concept-typemod; <!ENTITY % reference-typemod PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Reference//EN" "reference.mod"> %reference-typemod; <!ENTITY % task-typemod PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Task//EN" "task.mod"> %task-typemod; <!--vocabulary definitions--> <!ENTITY % pr-d-def PUBLIC "-//IBM//ELEMENTS DITA Programming Domain//EN" "programming-domain.mod"> %pr-d-def; <!ENTITY % cl-d-def SYSTEM "classlib-domain.mod"> %cl-d-def;
Notice that the class library phrases are added to the element entity for
keyword as well as for
apiname. This addition makes the class library
phrases available within topic structures that allow keywords and not just
in topic structures that explicitly allow API names. In fact, the
structures of the
reference topic specify only
keywords, but it's good practice to add the domain specialization entities
to all ancestor elements.
Considerations for domain specialization
When you define new types of topics or domain elements, remember that the hierarchies for topic specialization and domain specialization must be distinct. A specialized topic cannot use a domain element in a content model. Similarly, a domain element can specialize only from an element in the base topic or in another domain. That is, a topic and domain cannot have dependencies. To combine topics and domains, use a shell DTD.
When specializing elements with internal structure -- including the
dl lists, as well as
simpletable -- you should specialize the entire
content element. Creating special types of pieces of the internal
structure independently of the whole content structure usually doesn't
make much sense. For example, you usually want to create a special type of
list instead of a special type of
li list item
You should never specialize from the elements of the highlight domain. These style elements do not have a specific semantic. Although the formatting of the highlight styles might seem convenient, you might find you need to change the formatting later.
As noted previously, you should use element entities instead of literal element names in content models. The element entities are necessary to permit domain specialization.
The content model should allow for the possibility that the element entity might expand to a list. When applying a modifier to the element entity, you should enclose the element entity in parentheses. Otherwise, the modifier will apply only to the last element if the entity expands to a list. Similar issues affect an element entity in a sequence:
..., ( %classname; ), ... ... ( %classname; )? ... ... ( %classname; )* ... ... ( %classname; )+ ... ... | %classname; | ...
The parentheses aren't needed if the element entity is already in a list.
Generalizing a domain
As with topics, a specialized content element can be generalized to one of
its ancestor elements. In the previous scenario, a
classname can generalize to
apiname or even
keyword. As a result, documents using different
domains but the same topics can be exchanged or merged without having to
generalize the topics.
To return to the highlight style controversy mentioned in Understanding the base domains, a pragmatic document authored with highlight domain will contain phrases like the following:
... the <b>important</b> point is ...
When the document is generalized to the same topic but without the
highlight domain, the pragmatic
becomes a purist
ph element, indicating that
the phrase is special without introducing presentation:
... the <ph class="+ topic/ph hi-d/b ">important</ph> point is ...
In the previous scenario, the class library authors could send their topics
to another DITA shop without the class library domain. The recipients
would generalize the class library topics, converting the
classname elements to
apiname base elements. After generalization,
the recipients could edit and process the class, field, and method names
in the same way as any other API names. That is, the situation would be
the same as if the senders had decided not to distinguish class, field,
and method names and, instead, had marked up these names as generic API
As an alternative, the recipients could decide to add the class library
domain to their definitions. In this approach, the senders would provide
not only their topics but also the entity declaration and element
definition files for the domain. The recipients would add the class
library domain to their shell DTD. The recipients could then work with
classname elements without having to
The recipients can use additional domains with no impact on interoperability. That is, the shell DTD for the recipients could use more domains than the shell DTD for the senders without creating the need to modify the topics.
Note: When defining specializations, you should avoid introducing a
dependency on special processing that lacks a graceful fallback to the
processing for the base element. In the scenario, special processing for
classname element might generate a literal
"class" label in the output to save some typing and produce consistent
labels. After automated generalization, however, the label would not be
supplied by the base processing for the
element. Thus, the dependency would require a special generalization
transform to append the literal "class" label to
classname elements in the source file.
Through topic specialization and domains, DITA provides the following benefits:
- Simpler topic design: The document designer can focus on the structure of the topic without having to foresee every variety of content used within the structure.
- Simpler topic hierarchies: The document designer can add new types of content without having to add new types of topics.
- Extensible content for existing topics: The document designer can reuse existing types of topics with new types of content.
- Semantic precision: Content elements with more specific semantics can be derived from existing elements and used freely within documents.
- Simpler element lists for authors: The document designer can select domains to minimize the element set. Authors can learn the elements that are appropriate for the document instead of learning to disregard unneeded elements.
In short, the DITA domain feature provides for great flexibility in extending and reusing information types. The highlight, programming, and UI domains provided with the base DITA release are only the beginning of what can be accomplished.
The information provided in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is distributed "AS IS," without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. The use of this information or the implementation of any of these techniques described in this document is the reader's responsibility and depends on the reader's ability to evaluate and integrate them into their operating environment. Readers attempting to adapt these techniques to their own environments do so at their own risk.
Â© Copyright International Business Machines Corp., 2002. All rights reserved.
IBM donated DITA to the OASIS standards organization in March of 2004, where it is now managed by the OASIS DITA Technical Committee (http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/dita/). In April of 2005, OASIS approved Version 1.0 of the DITA specification, which consists of the following documents:
- OASIS Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) Language Specification: http://xml.coverpages.org/DITAv10-OS-LangSpec20050509.pdf
- OASIS Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) Architectural Specification: http://xml.coverpages.org/DITAv10-OS-ArchSpec20050509.pdf
- A consolidated .zip file with all specifications, DTDs, and Schemas is publicly available in the documents section of the OASIS DITA Technical Committee site: http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/download.php/12091/cd2.zip
A reference implementation toolkit for both the developerWorks and OASIS 1.0 versions of the DITA DTDs/Schemas is available at the DITA Open Toolkit project site on SourceForge: http://dita-ot.sourceforge.net. The DITA Open Toolkit supercedes all previous versions published on developerWorks, the last version of which was commonly called "dita132".
- Read the updated developerWorks article "Introduction to the Darwin Information Typing Architecture" (developerWorks, updated September 2005).
- Define new topic structures by specializing topics in DITA (developerWorks, updated September 2005).
- Get answers to frequently asked questions about DITA (developerWorks, updated September 2005).
- Join discussions of the initiative from the DITA Forum jump page (developerWorks, updated September 2005).