The point of the XML-based Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) is to create modular technical documents that are easy to reuse with varied display and delivery mechanisms, such as helpsets, manuals, hierarchical summaries for small-screen devices, and so on. This article explains how to put the DITA principles into practice with regards to the creation of a DTD and transforms that will support your particular information types, rather than just using the base DITA set of concept, task, and reference.
Topic specialization is the process by which authors and architects define new topic types, while maintaining compatibility with existing style sheets, transforms, and processes. The new topic types are defined as an extension, or delta, relative to an existing topic type, thereby reducing the work necessary to define and maintain the new type.
This document assumes that you already know what DITA is; if you need a basic introduction, see the companion roadmap article, Introduction to the Darwin Information Typing Architecture. The examples used in this paper use XML DTD syntax and XSLT; if you need background on these subjects, see Resources.
In SGML, architectural forms are a classic way to provide mappings from one document type to another. Specialization is an architectural-forms-like solution to a more constrained problem: providing mappings from a more specific topic type to a more general topic type. Because the specific topic type is developed with the general topic type in mind, specialization can ignore many of the thornier problems that architectural forms address. This constrained domain makes specialization processes relatively easy to implement and maintain. Specialization also provides support for multi-level or hierarchical specializations, which allow more general topic types to serve as the common denominator for different specialized types.
The specialization process was created to work with DITA, although its principles and processes apply to other domains as well. This will make more sense if you consider an example: Given specialization and a generic DTD such as HTML, you can create a new document type (call it MyHTML). In MyHTML you could enforce site standards for your company, including specific rules about forms layout, heading levels, and use of font and blink tags. In addition, you could provide more specific structures for product and ordering information, to enable search engines and other applications to use the data more effectively.
Specialization lets MyHTML be defined as an extension of the HTML DTD, declaring new element types only as necessary and referencing HTML's DTD for shared elements. Wherever MyHTML declares a new element, it includes a mapping back to an existing HTML element. This mapping allows the creation of style sheets and transforms for HTML that operate equally well on MyHTML documents. When you want to handle a structure differently (for example, to format product information in a particular way), you can define a new style sheet or transform that holds the extending behavior, and then import the standard style sheet or transform to handle the rest. In other words, new behavior is added as extensions to the original style sheet, in the same way that new constraints were added as extensions to the original DTD or schema.
Specializing information types
The Darwin Information Typing Architecture is less about document types than information types. A document is considered to be made up of a number of topics, each with its own information type. A topic is, simply, a chunk of information consisting of a heading and some text, optionally divided into sections. The information type describes the content of the topic: for example, the type of a given topic might be "concept" or "task."
DITA has three types of topic: a generic topic, or information-typed concept, task, and reference topics. Concept, task, and reference topics can all be considered specializations of topic:
Figure 1. Three information types, as specializations of topic
Additional information types can be added to the architecture as specializations of any of these three basic types, or as a peer specialization directly off of topic -- and any of these additional specializations can, in turn, be specialized:
Figure 2. The architecture extended to incorporate more specialized types
Each new information type is defined as an extension of an existing information type: The specializing type inherits, without duplication, any common structures; and the specializing type provides a mapping between its new elements and the general type's existing elements. Each information type is defined in its own DTD module, which defines only the new elements for that type. A document that consists of exactly one information type (for example, a task document in a help web) has a document type defined by all the modules in the information type's specialization hierarchy (for example, task.mod and topic.mod). A document type with multiple information types (for example, a book consisting of concepts, tasks, and reference topics) includes the modules for each of the information types used, as well as the modules for their ancestors (concept.mod, task.mod, reference.mod, plus their ancestor topic.mod).
Because information type declarations are separated into modules, you can define new information types without affecting ancestor types. This separation gives you the following benefits:
- Reduces maintenance costs: Each authoring group maintains only the elements that it uniquely requires
- Increases compatibility: The core information types can be centrally maintained, and changes to the core types are reflected in all specializing types
- Distributes control: Reusability is controlled by the reuser, instead of by the author; adding a new type does not affect the maintenance of the core type, and does not affect other users of different types
Any information-typed topic belongs to multiple types. For example, an API description is, in more general terms, a reference topic.
Specialization example: Reference topic
Consider the specialization hierarchy for a reference topic:
Figure 3. A simple specialization hierarchy
Table 1 expresses the relationship between the general elements in
topic and the specific elements in
Within the table, the columns, rows, and cells indicate information types,
element mappings, and elements. Table 2 explains the relationships in
detail to help you interpret Table 1.
Table 1. Relationships between topic and a specialization based on it
Table 2. How to interpret Table 1.
|Columns||The Topic column shows basic
|Rows||Each row represents a mapping between the
elements in that row. The elements in the Reference
column specialize the elements in the Topic column.
Each general element also serves as a category for more
specialized elements in the same row. For example,
|Cells||Each cell in a column represents the following
possibilities in relation to the cell to its left: |
The reference type module
Listing 1 illustrates not the actual
but a simplified version based on Table 1. The use of entities in the
content models support domain specialization, as described in the domain
specialization article (see Resources).
<!ELEMENT reference ((%title;), (%prolog;)?, (%refbody;), (%info-types;)* )> <!ELEMENT refbody (%section; | refsyn | %simpletable; | properties)*> <!ELEMENT properties ((%sthead;)?, (%strow;)+) > <!ELEMENT refsyn (%section;)* >
Most of the content models declared here depend on elements or entities
topic.mod. Therefore, if
structure is enhanced or changed, most of the changes will be picked up by
reference automatically. Also, the definition of
reference remains simple: It doesn't have to redeclare any of
the content that it shares with
Adding specialization attributes
To expose the element mappings, you can add an attribute to each element that shows its mappings to more general types.
<!ATTLIST reference class CDATA "- topic/topic reference/reference "> <!ATTLIST refbody class CDATA "- topic/body reference/refbody "> <!ATTLIST properties class CDATA "- topic/simpletable reference/properties "> <!ATTLIST refsyn class CDATA "- topic/section reference/refsyn >
Later on, I'll talk about how to take advantage of these attributes when you write an XSL transform. See the appendix for a more in-depth description of the class attribute.
Creating an authoring DTD
Now that you've defined the type module (which declares the newly typed elements and their attributes) and added specialization attributes (which map the new type to its ancestors), you can assemble an authoring DTD.
<!--Redefine the infotype entity to exclude other topic types--> <!ENTITY % info-types "reference"> <!--Embed topic to get generic elements --> <!ENTITY % topic-type SYSTEM "topic.mod"> %topic-type; <!--Embed reference to get specific elements --> <!ENTITY % reference-type SYSTEM "reference.mod"> %reference-type;
Specialization example: API description
Now, I'll show you how to create a more specialized information type: API descriptions, which are a kind of (and therefore specialization of) reference topic.
Figure 4. A more specialized information type, API description
Table 3 shows part of the specialization for an information type called APIdesc, for API description. As before, each column represents an information type, with specialization occurring from left to right. That is, each information type is a specialization of its neighbor to the left. Each row represents a set of mapped elements, with more specific elements to the right mapping to more general equivalents to the left.
As before, each cell specializes the contents of the cell to its left:
- A blank cell: The element to the left is picked up by the new type
unchanged. For example,
refsynare available in an API description.
- A full cell: The element to the left is replaced by a more specific
one. For instance,
- A split row with a blank cell: New elements are added to the elements
on the left. For example, the API description adds a
usagesection as a peer of the
Table 3. Summary of APIdesc specialization
The APIdesc module
Here you can see that the content for an API description is actually much
more restricted than the content of a general reference topic. The
sequence of syntax, then usage, then parameters is now imposed, followed
by optional additional sections. This sequence is a subset of the
allowable structures in a reference topic, which allows any sequence of
syntax, properties, and sections. In addition, the label for the usage
section is now fixed as
Usage, taking advantage
spectitle attribute of section (which is there for
exactly this kind of usage): With the
providing the section title, you can also get rid of the title element in
usage's content model, making use of the predefined section.notitle.cnt
<!ELEMENT APIdesc (APIname, (%prolog;)?, APIbody,(%info-types;)* )> <!ELEMENT APIname (%title.cnt;)*> <!ELEMENT APIbody (refsyn,usage,parameters,(%section;)*)> <!ELEMENT usage (%section.notitle.cnt;)* > <!ATTLIST usage spectitle CDATA #FIXED "Usage"> <!ELEMENT parameters ((%sthead;)?, (%strow;)+)>
Adding specialization attributes
Every new element now has a mapping to all its ancestor elements.
<!ATTLIST APIdesc class CDATA "- topic/topic reference/reference APIdesc/APIdesc " > <!ATTLIST APIname class CDATA "- topic/title reference/title APIdesc/APIname " > <!ATTLIST APIbody class CDATA "- topic/body reference/refbody APIdesc/APIbody" > <!ATTLIST parameters class CDATA "- topic/simpletable reference/properties APIdesc/parameters "> <!ATTLIST usage class CDATA "- topic/section reference/section APIdesc/usage ">
APIname explicitly identifies its equivalent in both
reference and topic, even though they are the same (title) in both cases.
In the same way, usage explicitly maps to section in both reference and
topic. This explicit identification makes it easier for processes to keep
track of complex mappings. Even if you had a specialization hierarchy 10
levels deep or more, the attributes would still allow unambiguous mappings
to each ancestor information type.
Now that you've defined the type module (which declares the newly typed elements and their attributes) and added specialization attributes (which map the new type to its ancestors), you can assemble an authoring DTD.
<!--Redefine the infotype entity to exclude other topic types--> <!ENTITY % info-types "APIdesc"> <!--Embed topic to get generic elements --> <!ENTITY % topic-type SYSTEM "topic.mod"> %topic-type; <!--Embed reference to get more specific elements --> <!ENTITY % reference-type SYSTEM "reference.mod"> %reference-type; <!--Embed APIdesc to get most specific elements --> <!ENTITY % APIdesc-type SYSTEM "APIdesc.mod"> %APIdesc-type;
Working with specialization
After a specialized type has been defined and the necessary attributes have been declared, they can provide the basis for the following operations:
- Applying a general style sheet or transform to a specialized topic type
- Generalizing a topic of a specialized type (transforming it into a more generic topic type)
- Specializing a topic of a general type (transforming it into a more specific topic type -- to be used only when a topic was originally authored in specialized form and has gone through a general stage without breaking the constraints of its original form)
Applying general style sheets or transforms
Because content written in a new information type (such as APIdesc) has
mappings to equivalent or less restrictive structures in preexisting
information types (such as
the preexisting transforms and processes can be safely applied to the new
content. By default, each specialized element in the new information type
will be treated as an instance of its general equivalent. For example, in
<usage>element will be
treated as a topic
<section> element that happens to
have the fixed label
To override this default behavior, an author can simply create a new, more specific rule for that element type and then import the default style sheet or transform, thus extending the behavior without directly editing the original style sheet or transform. This reuse by reference reduces maintenance costs (each site maintains only the rules it uniquely requires) and increases consistency (because the core transform rules can be centrally maintained, and changes to the core rules will be reflected in all other transforms that import them). Control over reuse has moved from the author of the transform to the reuser of the transform.
The rest of this section assumes knowledge of XSLT, the XSL Transformations language.
This process works only if the general transforms have been enabled to handle specialized elements, and if the specialized elements include enough information for the general transform to handle them.
- Requirement 1: Mapping attributes To provide the specialization information, you need to add specialization attributes, as outlined previously. After you include the attributes in your documents, they are ready to be processed by specialization-aware transforms.
- Requirement 2: Specialization-aware transforms For the transform, you need template rules that check for a match against both the element name and the attribute value.
<xsl:template match="*[contains(@class,' topic/simpletable ']"> <!--matches any element that has a class attribute that mentions topic/simpletable--> <!--do something--> </xsl:template>
Example: overriding a transform
To override the general transform for a specific element, the author of a new information type can create a transform that declares the new behavior for the specific element and imports the general transform to provide default behavior for the other elements.
For example, an
APIdesc specialized transform could allow
default handling for all specialized elements except
<xsl:import href="general-transform.xsl"/> <xsl:template match="*[contains(@class,' APIdesc/parameters ']"> <!--do something--> <xsl:apply-templates/> </xsl:template>
Both the preexisting
rule and the new
parameters template rule match when they
parameters element (because the
parameters element is a specialized type of
properties element, and its class
attribute contains both values). However, because the
parameters template is in the importing style sheet,
the new template takes precedence.
Generalizing a topic
Because a specialized information type is also an instance of its ancestor types (an APIdesc is a reference topic is a topic), you can safely transform a specialized topic to one of its more generic ancestors. This upward compatibility is useful when you want to combine sets of documentation from two sources, each of which has specialized differently. The ancestor type provides a common denominator that both can be safely transformed to. This compatibility may also be useful when you have to feed topics through processes that are not specialization-aware: For example, a publication center that charges for each document type or uses non-DTD-aware processes could be sent a generalized set of documents, so that they only support one document type or set of markup. However, wherever possible, you should use specialization-aware processes and transforms, so that you can avoid generalizing and process your documents in their more descriptive, specialized form.
To safely generalize a topic, you need a way to map from your information type to the target information type. You also need a way to preserve the original type in case you need round-tripping later.
class attribute that was introduced previously serves two
purposes. It provides:
- The information needed to map
- A way to preserve the information to allow round-tripping
Each level of specialization has its own set of class attributes, which in the end provide the full specialization hierarchy for all specialized elements.
APIdesc topic in Listing 9.
<APIdesc> <APIname>AnAPI</APIname> <APIbody> <refsyn>AnAPI (parm1, parm2)</refsyn> <usage spectitle="Usage">Use AnAPI to pass parameters to your process. </usage> <parameters > ... </parameters> </APIbody> </APIdesc>
class attributes exposed (all values are provided as
defaults by the DTD):
<APIdesc class="- topic/topic reference/reference APIdesc/APIdesc "> <APIname class="- topic/title reference/title APIdesc/APIname ">AnAPI </APIname> <APIbody class="- topic/body reference/refbody APIdesc/APIbody "> <refsyn class="- topic/section reference/refsyn ">AnAPI(parm1, parm2)</refsyn> <usage class="- topic/section reference/section APIdesc/usage " spectitle="Usage"> <p class="- topic/p ">Use AnAPI to pass parameters to your process.</p> </usage> <parameters class="topic/simpletable reference/properties APIdesc/parameters "> ... </parameters> </APIbody> </APIdesc>
From here, a single template rule can transform the entire
APIdesc topic to either a
reference or a generic
topic. The template rule simply looks in the
for the ancestor element name, and renames the current element to
After a transform to topic, the code should look something like Listing 11.
<topic class="- topic/topic reference/reference APIdesc/APIdesc "> <title class="- topic/title reference/title APIdesc/APIname ">AnAPI </title> <body class="- topic/body reference/refbody APIdesc/APIbody "> <section class="- topic/section reference/refsyn ">AnAPI(parm1, parm2)</section> <section class="- topic/section reference/section APIdesc/usage " spectitle="Usage"> <p class="- topic/p ">Use AnAPI to pass parameters to your process.</p> </section> <simpletable class="topic/simpletable reference/properties APIdesc/parameters "> ... </simpletable> </body> </topic>
Even after generalization, specialization-aware transforms can continue to
treat the topic as an
APIdesc because the transforms can look
class attribute for information about the element type
From here, it is possible to round-trip by reversing the transformation
(looking in the
class attribute for the specializing element
name, and renaming the current element to match). Whenever the
class attribute doesn't list the target (the first
section has no
APIdesc value), the element is
changed to the last value listed (so the first
becomes, accurately, a
However, if anyone changes the structure of the content while it is a
topic (as by changing the order of sections), the
result might not be valid anymore under the specialized information type
(which in the
APIdesc case enforces a particular sequence of
information in the
APIbody). So although mapping to a more
general type is always safe, mapping back to a specialized type can be
problematic: The specialized type has more rules, which make the content
specialized. But those rules aren't enforced while the content is encoded
Specializing a topic
It is relatively trivial to specialize a general topic if the content was originally authored as a specialized type. However, a more complex case can result if you have authored content at a general level that you now want to type more precisely.
For example, suppose that you create a set of reference topics. Then, having analyzed your content, you realize that you have a consistent pattern. Now you want to enforce this pattern and describe it with a specialized information type (for example, API descriptions). In order to specialize, you need to first create the target DTD and then add enough information to your content to allow it to be migrated.
You can put the specializing information in either of two places:
- Add it to the
classattribute. You need to be careful to get the order correct and include all ancestor type values.
- Give the name of the target element in an
outputclassattribute, migrate based on that value, and add the
classattribute values afterward.
In either case, before migration you can run a validation transform that looks for the appropriate attribute, then checks that the content of the element will be valid under the specialized content model. You can use a tool like Schematron to generate both the validating transform and the migrating transform, or you can migrate first and use the specialized DTD to validate that the migration was successful.
Specializing with schemas
Like the XML DTD syntax, the XML Schema language is a way of defining a vocabulary (elements and attributes) and a set of constraints on that vocabulary (such as content models, or fixed versus implied attributes). It has a built-in specialization mechanism, which includes the capability to restrict allowable specializations. Using the XML Schema language instead of DTDs makes it much easier to validate that specialized information types represent valid subsets of generic types, which ensures smooth processing by generic translation and publishing transforms.
Unlike DTDs, XML schemas are expressed as XML documents. As a result, they can be processed in ways that DTDs cannot. For example, you can maintain a single XML schema and then use XSL to generate two versions:
- An authoring version of it that eliminates any fixed attributes and any overridden elements
- A processor-ready version of it that includes the class attributes that drive the translation and publishing transforms
However, XML schemas are not yet popular enough to adopt wholeheartedly. The main problems are a lack of authoring tools and incompatibilities between the implementations of an evolving standard. These problems should be remedied by the industry over the next year or so, as the standard is finalized and schemas become more widely adopted and supported.
You can create a specialized information type by using this general procedure:
- Identify the elements that you need.
- Identify the mapping to elements of a more general type.
- Verify that the content models of specialized elements are more restrictive than their general equivalents.
- Create a type module file that holds your specialized element and
attribute declarations (including the
- Create an authoring DTD file that imports the appropriate type modules.
You can create specialized XSL transforms by using this general procedure:
- Create a new transform for your information type.
- Import the existing transform that you want to extend.
- Identify the elements that you need to treat specially.
- Add template rules that match those elements, based on their
Appendix: Rules for specialization
Although you could create a new element equivalent for any tag in a general
DTD, this work is useless to you as an author unless the content models
that would include the tag are also specialized. In the
APIdesc example, the
parameters element is not
valid content anywhere in
For it to be used, you need to create valid contexts for parameters, all
the way up to the topic-level container. To expose the
parameters element to your authors, you need to specialize
the following parts:
bodyelement, to allow parameters as valid content (giving us
topicelement, to allow the specialized body (giving us
This domino effect can be avoided by using domain specialization. If you truly just want to add some new variant structures to an existing information type, use domain specialization instead of topic specialization (see "Specializing domains in DITA" in Resources).
To ensure that the specialized elements are more constrained than their general equivalents (that is, that they allow a proper subset of the structures that the general equivalent allows), you need to look at the content model of the general element. You can safely change the content model of your specialized element as shown in Table 4:
Table 4. Summary of specialization rules
|Content type||Example (Special specializing General)|
|Optional (?)||Rename, make required, or delete|
|One or more (+)||Rename, make required, split into a required element plus others, split into one or more elements plus others.|
|Zero or more (*)||Rename, make required, make optional, split into a required element plus others, split into an optional element plus others, split into one-or-more plus others, split into zero-or-more plus others, or delete|
|Either-or||Rename, or choose one|
You have a general element
General, with the content model
(a,b?,(c|d+)). This definition means that a
a, optionally followed by element
b, and always ends with either
c or one or more
Listing A. The content model for the general element General
<!ELEMENT General (a,b?,(c|d+))>
When you specialize
General to create
its content model must be as or more restrictive: It cannot allow more
General did, or you will not be able to map
upward or guarantee the correct behavior of general processes, transforms,
or style sheets.
Leaving aside renaming (which is always allowed, and simply means that you
are also specializing some of the elements that
contain), here are some valid changes that you could make to the content
Special, resulting in the same or more restrictive
Listing B. A valid change to the model Special, making b mandatory
<!ELEMENT Special (a,b,(c|d))>
Special now requires
b to be present, instead of
optional, and allows only one
d. It safely maps to
Listing C. A valid change to the model Special, making c mandatory and disallowing d
<!ELEMENT Special (a,b?,c)>
Special now requires
c to be present, and no
d. It safely maps to
Listing D. A valid change to the model Special, making three specializations of d mandatory
<!ELEMENT Special (a,b?,d1,d2,d3)>
Special now requires three specializations of
to be present, and does not allow
c. It safely maps to
Details of the class attribute
Every element must have a
class attribute. The
class attribute starts and ends with white space, and
contains a list of blank-delimited values. Each value has two parts: The
first part identifies a topic type, and the second part (after a /)
identifies an element type. The
class attribute value should
be declared as a default attribute value in the DTD. Generally, it should
not be modified by the author.
<appstep class="- topic/li task:step bctask/appstep ">A specialized step</appstep>
When a specialized type declares new elements, it must provide a class attribute for the new element. The class attribute must include a mapping for every topic type in the specialized type's ancestry, even those in which no element renaming occurred. The mapping should start with topic, and finish with the current element type.
<appname class="- topic/kwd task/kwd bctask/appname ">
This is necessary so that generalizing and specializing transforms can map
values simply and accurately. For example, if
missing as a value, and I decided to map this
bctask up to a
task topic, then the transform would have to guess whether to map to
kwd (appropriate if
task is more general, which
it is) or leave as
appname (appropriate if
were more specialized, which it isn't). By always providing mappings for
more general values, we can then apply the simple rule that missing
mappings must by default be to more specialized values, which means the
last value in the list is appropriate. While this example is trivial, more
complicated hierarchies (say, five levels deep, with renaming occurring at
two and four only) make this kind of mapping essential.
A specialized type does not need to change the
for elements that it does not specialize, but simply reuses by reference
from more generic levels. For example, since
bctask use the
p element without specializing
it, they don't need to declare mappings for it.
A specialized type only declares
class attributes for the
elements that it uniquely declares. It does not need to declare
class attributes for elements that it reuses or inherits.
Using the class attribute
Applying an XSLT template based on
class attribute values
allows a transform to be applied to whole branches of element types,
instead of just a single element type.
Wherever you would check for an element name (any XPath statement that
contains an element name value), you need to enhance this to instead check
the contents of the element's
class attribute. Even if the
element is unrecognized, the
class attribute can let the
transform know that the element belongs to a class of known elements, and
can be safely treated according to their rules.
<xsl:template match="*[contains(@class,' topic/li ')]">
This match statement will work on any
li element it
encounters. It will also work on
appstep elements, even though it doesn't know what they are
specifically, because the
class attribute tells the template
what they are generally.
<xsl:template match="*[contains(@class,' task/step ')]">
This match statement won't work on generic
li elements, but it
will work on both
step elements and
elements; even though it doesn't know what an
appstep is, it
knows to treat it like a
Be sure to include a leading and trailing blank in your class attribute
string check. Otherwise, you could get false matches (without the blanks,
task/step would match on
The class attribute in domains specialization
When you create a domains specialization, the new elements still need a
class attribute, but should start with a "+" instead of a
"-". This signals any generalization transforms to treat the element
differently: A domains-aware generalization transform may have different
logic for handling domains than for handling topic specializations.
Domain specializations should be derived either from topic (the root topic type), or from another domain specialization. Do not create a domain by specializing an already specialized topic type: This can result in unpredictable generalization behavior, and is not currently supported by the architecture.
The information provided in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is distributed "AS IS," without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. The use of this information or the implementation of any of these techniques described in this document is the reader's responsibility and depends on the reader's ability to evaluate and integrate them into their operating environment. Readers attempting to adapt these techniques to their own environments do so at their own risk.
Â© Copyright International Business Machines Corp., 2002. All rights reserved.
IBM donated DITA to the OASIS standards organization in March of 2004, where it is now managed by the OASIS DITA Technical Committee (http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/dita/). In April of 2005, OASIS approved Version 1.0 of the DITA specification, which consists of the following documents:
- OASIS Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) Language Specification: http://xml.coverpages.org/DITAv10-OS-LangSpec20050509.pdf
- OASIS Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) Architectural Specification: http://xml.coverpages.org/DITAv10-OS-ArchSpec20050509.pdf
- A consolidated .zip file with all specifications, DTDs, and Schemas is publicly available in the documents section of the OASIS DITA Technical Committee site: http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/download.php/12091/cd2.zip
A reference implementation toolkit for both the developerWorks and OASIS 1.0 versions of the DITA DTDs/Schemas is available at the DITA Open Toolkit project site on SourceForge: http://dita-ot.sourceforge.net. The DITA Open Toolkit supercedes all previous versions published on developerWorks, the last version of which was commonly called "dita132".
- Read the Introduction to the Darwin Information Typing Architecture (developerWorks, updated September 2005).
- Find out how to join the discussion in the DITA forum, moderated by Don Day and Michael Preistley.
- Go directly to the DITA forum.
- Download the latest DITA DTDs, stylesheets, and sample documents.
- Need background on XSLT? Read Michael Kay's technical introduction, "What kind of language is XSLT?" (developerWorks, April 2005).