An adapter pattern is a quick and easy way of creating a service that uses an adapter. Like other patterns in software, an adapter pattern is based on the way many users create a service that uses an adapter. An adapter pattern based on this common behavior can be seen as a type of shortcut to get up and running with an application that will work for many â but not all â users. In WebSphere Integration Developer, the following adapter patterns are available:
Table 1. WebSphere Integration Developer V6.1.2 adapter patterns
|Name of adapter pattern||Description|
|Inbound FTP adapter pattern||Creates a service that retrieves a file from a directory on an FTP server. If the file is not in an XML format, you can specify a data handler to transform the file content format to a business object, which is the format that is expected by SOA applications. The file content can be split if the content contains multiple instances of the data structure for processing.|
|Outbound FTP adapter pattern||Creates a service that retrieves a file from a directory on an FTP server. If the file is not in an XML format, you can specify a data handler to transform the file content format to a business object, which is the format that is expected by SOA applications. The file content can be split if the content contains multiple instances of the data structure for processing.|
|Inbound flat file adapter pattern||Creates a service that retrieves a file from a directory on a local file system. Similar to the FTP adapter pattern, a data handler can be used to transform the data if your organization requires a unique format. The file content can be split if the content contains multiple instances of the data structure for processing.|
|Outbound flat file adapter pattern||Creates a service that stores data in a file that is added to a directory on the local file system. A data handler can be used be used to transform the data, if the required data output format is unique to for your organization.|
|Outbound Email adapter pattern||Creates a service that sends simple messages using an Email server.|
When you would use an adapter pattern
An adapter pattern is based on observing how most users would use a particular adapter. The result is a wizard which requires a minimum input from you since the values for many fields have been predetermined (based on what most users would have provided). In the case of the FTP adapter pattern, for example, you need to provide only the host name of the FTP server, the directories and the format of the input and output files.
If the simple and easy adapter pattern will work for most users, when will it not be appropriate? There are a few cases. Some generated services that use an adapter will never have an adapter pattern. These services need the regular adapter wizard because the wizard must interact with an EIS system and get metadata before generating the service. In other words, a pattern cannot be created because values cannot be predetermined. For example, an adapter that interacts with a database such as WebSphere Adapter for JDBC, requires that a database, tables and other database information be discovered before a service can be created.
Another example of when an adapter pattern will not work for the FTP adapter or the Flat File adapter is when you wish to use another method besides the Create or Append method in your application. When you create an outbound FTP service that does not use an adapter pattern, the following methods are created: Create, Append, Overwrite, Delete, Exists, List, Retrieve, ExecuteFTPScript and ServerToServerFileTransfer. The adapter pattern wizard only exposes the Create and Append method. The adapter pattern wizard, in a nutshell, covers 80% of the general use cases for the adapters. However, your case may be in the other 20%.
Overview of the application
Letâs look at the business problem we are trying to solve with our application. Our marketing team at the head office of a bank created a new financial service to offer customers. âWe need to get information on this new financial service out to our customers right away! Can it be done?â asked the marketing director. The IT director recalled that most customers had email addresses in their customer records, which could be used for an electronic mail out. She added that using IBMâs new adapter pattern wizard it would be easy to extract the names and email addresses from the customer records kept at the branch offices. The branch offices simply had to put the customer records in a directory on an FTP machine.
Our application will extract the email addresses from the customer records at the bankâs branch offices. The branch offices will put the customer data in XML format in a file in a directory on an FTP machine. The application will pick up the XML file and reduce the information to just the customer name and email address. Our application will output this information to files that will be used to notify the bankâs customers through an email note that a new financial service is available.
The diagram below shows at runtime what the application will do. Letâs quickly walk through the technical aspects of the application before building the actual application with WebSphere Integration Developer.
The top rectangle represents a server at a branch office that has FTP support. An XML file with a list of customer records from that branch office is placed into a directory. Our application, which at this point has been set up using the FTP adapter pattern wizard, picks up the XML file using the WebSphere Adapter for FTP and reads in the customer data from that file. The adapter periodically polls the directory to check if another XML file has been added and again reads in the customer data for processing. At runtime, this is called inbound processing because the data is coming from an external source into the SOA application. The data streams into an export component of our application. An export is used to access data being sent from another external system.
Once read in, the application processes the data. A business object map and an interface map are used to take all the customer data and revise the collection of data to just the customer name and email address. That information is passed to an import component. An import is used to send data from an SOA application to an external system, in this case, back to the FTP server. An alternative design would be for the application to directly send the email since the application now has the customer name and email address isolated.
Figure 1. Describes the functions the application performs at runtime
Build the application
Letâs get started. We will build the application in a process that is similar to the way most developers create applications. We will first set up our project files and then use the adapter patterns wizard to set up the interaction between the SOA application, the FTP adapter and the FTP server. Once this set up work is done, we will create a business object map and an interface map, used to separate just the customerâs name and email address from the entire set of customer data, and wire all the components together, which means linking all the SOA components together to create an SOA application. Lastly, we will test our application using WebSphere Integration Developerâs test environment. This means deploying our application to a built in server for test purposes, running the application and examining the output files.
Create a module
A module is similar in other products to a project folder. It contains all the elements of your application.
Follow these steps to create a module:
From the menu bar, select File => New => Module. In the Module Name field, enter
- Click Finish. The module appears in the Business Integration view.
Create two business objects for the module
Your module will require two business objects. One business object will contain the customer information that is read in from the bankâs branch. This business object will contain all the customer information (name, email address, street address, city and province.) The other business object will contain the customer information that will be returned to the bankâs branch. It will be used to market the bankâs new financial service. It will contain only the name and email address.
To create your business objects, follow these steps:
Expand AdapterPatterns. Right-click Data Types. From the menu, select New => Business Object. In the Folder and Name fields, enter
Customer. It is good programming practice to add a folder, as on generation the business object artifacts are grouped physically in folders rather than mixed with all the other files in the root folder. In our simple application, we used the same name. In a more complex application with many business objects, you would choose different names so you could group your business objects logically. Click Finish. The business object editor opens.
- Select Customer and then click Add a field to a business object, which you will find at the top of the editor.
Change field1 to
customerName. Similarly add the following fields:
state. Leave the type as
string. Save your work
Create another business object called CustomerNameEmailOnly in the same manner with only
Close the business object editor when finished.
Figure 2. Create the business objects
Figure 3. Create CustomerNameEmailOnly business object
Setup file structure on FTP machine and local machine
Some directories need to be created that will be used by the application you develop in the AdapterPatterns module. An input file needs to be placed in one of them, which will represent the customer information that would be sent from one of the bankâs branch offices to the head office.
Create the following directories:
On your server with FTP support, create two directories:
FTPRead. This is the file that will be read in by the application. The contents of
customer.txtfollows these steps.
- Check that the FTP program on the server has given your userid permission to read, write and delete files.
On your local computer where you have WebSphere Integration Developer, create a directory called
ftpand add the following subdirectories to
You should have a file structure like the following:
ftp\inboundarchive \outboundsequence \stagingdirectory
The flow of data in these directories is as follows. A file is placed in the FTPRead directory on the FTP machine. This file represents the customer data from a branch office of the bank. As each block of data representing a customer arrives in the local machine for processing, it is placed temporarily in a staging directory. While in this directory, a copy is placed in the archive directory with the suffix of a timestamp and a success or fail indicator. Success or fail is determined by the ActivationSpec class, which configures the transaction properties. You would only use an archive directory if you wanted to see if a file was successfully processed. From the staging directory, it is processed and the output sent to the FTPWrite directory.
The contents of
Listing 1. customer.txt
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <p:Customer xsi:type="p:Customer" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:p= "http://AdapterPatterns/Customer"> <customerName>John Doe</customerName> <email>email@example.com</email> <address>170 Baseline Ave</address> <city>Ottawa</city> <state>ON</state> </p:Customer> #### <p:Customer xsi:type="p:Customer" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:p= "http://AdapterPatterns/Customer"> <customerName>Susan Kidman</customerName> <email>firstname.lastname@example.org</email> <address>104 Candlestick Park</address> <city>Ottawa</city> <state>ON</state> </p:Customer> #### <p:Customer xsi:type="p:Customer" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:p=" http://AdapterPatterns/Customer"> <customerName>Kathleen Black</customerName> <email>email@example.com</email> <address>530 Chanticler Road</address> <city>Ottawa</city> <state>ON</state> </p:Customer> #### <p:Customer xsi:type="p:Customer" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:p= "http://AdapterPatterns/Customer"> <customerName>Gary White</customerName> <email>firstname.lastname@example.org</email> <address>793 Morin Street</address> <city>Ottawa</city> <state>ON</state> </p:Customer> ####
Create an inbound FTP service using the adapter pattern wizard
Create the inbound FTP service using the adapter pattern wizard with these steps.
Launch the adapter pattern wizard. From the menu bar, select File => New => From
Patterns. Expand Integration. Expand Adapters. Expand FTP.
Select Create an inbound FTP service to read from a remote file. Click
Figure 4. inbound FTP service to read from a remote file
In the FTP service name page, select AdapterPatterns for the module and add
a service and folder name called CustomerInfoTorontoBranch. Adding a folder is
recommended to contain the physical artifacts that will be generated. In our simple
example, we used the same name for service and folder. However, in a large, complex
application you would use different names since your folder would likely contain several
services grouped logically. Click Next.
Figure 5. Specify the name of the module and location of the inbound FTP service
In the Business object and location page, select Customer as the business
object. Identify your FTP server and specify your remote directory (
FTPRead). Clicking Test connection checks for a connection to the FTP server. For staging directory, browse to the location of
ftp\stagingdirectorythat you created earlier. The staging directory is a directory for temporarily placing files that are being processed by the application.
Note: In our example the staging directory on our local machine is identified with the WindowsÂ® notation for a file system; that is, backwards slashes to indicate directories. The remote directory, even though on a Windowsâ server, uses the UNIXÂ® convention of forward slashes for directories as the FTP program, not the operating system, determines the convention. Click Next.
Figure 6. Specify the business object and location of the input file
In the FTP server security credential page, add your Java™ Authentication and
Authorization Services (JAAS) alias. The JAAS alias specifies the credentials for the
FTP server (that is, the userid and password). The JAAS alias is set up on the WebSphere
Process Server, not the FTP server. In other words, the JAAS alias is on the application
server where the module will be deployed, not on the FTP server where the file that
contains the customer information is created or fetched from. Your application uses the
JAAS alias when running to retrieve the credentials stored on the WebSphere Process
Using the JAAS alias is the preferred method because no sensitive information is stored in a userâs application code. When you use the alternate method and specify a userid and password, this sensitive information is stored in plain text in the application code (that is, in the import or export file). Exposing sensitive information may be acceptable in testing situations but it is generally not acceptable in a production environment. Note that you can change from a userid and password to a JAAS alias after generating the service by changing the properties of the export in the assembly editor. Click Next.
Figure 7. Specify the FTP server security credential
In the Input file format and file content split option page, select the file
format. XML is used in our example and XML is the default. You could also use delimited,
configuration for the delimited data handler.
For the file content split option, we selected Split file content by delimiter. A splitter is used if there is more than one record in a file to be processed. For example if you are processing a spreadsheet with rows of records. Each record may be delimited by an end-of-line character. We entered a value of
####is the delimiter.
;indicates another delimiter follows.
\r\nindicates an end-of-line and new line follows. An explanation of the delimiter values is found in the file splitting section of the WebSphere Adapter for FTP documentation. It will vary on different operating systems. Note that the default is to have no file splitting. Click Next.
Figure 8. Specify the input file format and file content split option
In the Archive directory and wrapper business object page, browse to the
inboundarchivedirectory you created earlier. The field will then contain the path and filename. At runtime, this directory will add a file indicating if the incoming file was processed successfully. You would use the archive directory if you want to keep track of the success or failure of files being processed. This track is created by copying the files to this directory and appending a timestamp and success or failure indicator to them.
For our example, we did not choose to use a wrapper business object. You would use this option if your application needed additional information about the FTP adapter itself. Click Finish. An export is created in the assembly diagram editor; it represents your FTP inbound service. The values you entered when creating the service are shown when you select the export and select the properties view, where they may be modified. An FTP adapter project is added to your Business Integration view.
Figure 9. Specify the archive directory and option to provide input file information
Create an outbound FTP service using the adapter pattern wizard
Create the outbound FTP service using the adapter pattern wizard with these steps.
Launch the adapter patterns wizard. From the menu bar, select File => New => From
Patterns. Expand Integration. Expand Adapters. Expand FTP.
Select Create an outbound FTP service to write to a remote file. Click
Figure 10. Select one of the patterns to create an artifact
In the FTP service name page, add a service and folder name called
CustomerNameEmailOnly. As stated previously, in our simple example, we used the
same name for service and folder. However, in a large, complex application you would
probably use different names since your folder might contain several services grouped
logically. Click Next.
Figure 11. Specify the name and location of the outbound FTP service
In the Business object and FTP server credentials page, select
CustomerNameEmailOnly as the business object. Identify your FTP server and
specify your remote directory (
FTPWrite). Click Next.
Figure 12. Specify a business object, FTP server host name and remote directory
In the FTP server security credential page, add your Java Authentication and
Authorization Services (JAAS) alias for your FTP server. It is the recommended way of
handling security, as explained previously in the notes accompanying the same page when
creating an inbound FTP service. You may, however, use a userid and password. Click
Figure 13. Specify FTP server security credential
In the Outbound file name page, browse to the
outboundsequencedirectory created earlier. Note that you must have a sequence file name or one will be created based on your business object name. At runtime, the sequence file in that directory indicates the processing order of the outgoing data. The other fields will be filled by the adapter patterns wizard based on your business object name.
There are three methods for naming the output file. The first method is to generate a name using a sequence number. If you provide the name
TorontoBranch.txtthen the file name will be TorontoBranch.1.txt, TorontoBranch.2.txt, and so on for each customerâs data that is processed. A sequence file can be used for more than one output file. It is created on demand, and the adapter will place the name of the file and the next sequence number to use in it. The second method is to use the FTP server to generate a unique name. If you choose this option and need to know the name then it will be contained in the response business object. And finally you can specify the name of the file by using a wrapper business object. You would do this if the application is responsible for using a unique name and if the application will append further records to the file. Click Next.
Figure 14. Specify the method for naming the output file
In the Output file format page, accept the XML default format and click
Finish. The import is created and shown in the assembly editor.
Figure 15. Specify the format for the content of the output file
Create a business object map
You want some of the customer data from the Customer business object to go the CustomerNameEmailOnly business object. A business object map will be the means of reducing the customer data to only the customer name and email address.
In the Business Integration view, right-click Mapping and select New => Business Object Map. For the name and folder, enter
CustomerToCustomerNameEmailOnly. Click Next.
- In the Business Object Map page, click Add beside the Inputs pane. In the Data Type Selection dialog, select Customer and click OK.
- Click Add beside the Outputs pane. In the Data Type Selection dialog, select CustomerNameEmailOnly and click OK. Click Finish.
The business object mapping editor opens with the two business objects. Wire the
customerName and email fields in the Customer business object to
the same fields in the CustomerNameEmailOnly business object. Save your work and
close the editor. br />
Figure 16. Customer data from the Customer business object to go to CustomerNameEmailOnly
Figure 17. The business object mapping editor opens with the two business objects
Create an interface map
You want to wire the export that contains the incoming customer data to the import that will return only the customer name and email address to the FTP server. This means you must create an interface map between the components and use the business object map you just created so that only the customer name and email address are passed on.
In the Business Integration view, right-click Mapping and select New => Interface Map. In the name and folder fields, enter
CustomerInfoToNameEmailOnly. Click Finish. The interface mapping editor opens.
- Click Add source Interface, which you will find at the top of the editor. In the Add source Interface dialog, select CustomerInfoTorontoBranch. Click OK.
- Click Add target Interface, which you will find at the top of the editor. In the Add target Interface dialog, select CustomerNameEmailOnly. Click OK.
- Wire the emitCustomer operation in the CustomerInfoTorontoBranch interface to the Create operation in the CustomerNameEmailOnly interface. The Parameter mappings section of the editor opens.
- Wire the emitCustomerInput parameter to the createInput parameter. Since it is only a one-way operation, you do not need to wire the createResponse parameter.
- Click Move, which is on the wire between these parameters. Click the Properties view tab. In the Parameter Mapping Type field, change the value to Map.
Click the Details tab. In the Business Object Map field, select
CustomerToCustomerNameEmailOnly. Save your interface map and close the editor.
Figure 18. Create an interface map between the components
Wire the inbound and outbound FTP services to the interface map
Wiring the interface map between the export and import completes the application.
- In the Business Integration view, drag the CustomerInfoToNameEmailOnly interface map onto the assembly editor between the import and export.
- Wire the CustomerInfoTorontoBranch export to the CustomerInfoToNameEmailOnly interface map. An Add Wire information message tells you the export interface will be added to the interface map. Click OK.
- Wire the CustomerInfoToNameEmailOnly interface map to the CustomerNameEmailOnly import.
Save your work and close any open editors.
Figure 19. The Parameter mappings section of the editor opens
Test the application
A test client allows you to test an SOA application before you deploy the application to a production environment. Testing consists of starting the test server and deploying your application to it. Once the application is deployed to the test server, the WebSphere Adapter for FTP will poll the directory on the FTP server and process any files found in the directory.
Start the server and deploy the application
To start the server, deploy your application and see the results of using the adapter patterns wizard, follow these steps.
- Click the Servers tab to view the test servers available. Right-click the WebSphere Process Server. From the context menu, select Start.
- When the Status column changes to Started, right-click the WebSphere Process Server again. This time select Add and Remove Projects from the menu. The AdapterPatternsApp will be listed beneath Available projects. Click Add to move it to Configured projects. Click Finish.
- Your application is now running.
Examine the output files
You will find the output files in the FTPWrite directory of your FTP server. Each file will contain the name and email of one of the customers in an input file plus some XML code. The output files will be named
CustomerNameEmailOnly.<number>.txt. The content will be similar to the following:
Listing 2. output files
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <p:CustomerNameEmailOnly xsi:type="p:CustomerNameEmailOnly" xmlns:xsi= "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:p= "http://AdapterPatterns/CustomerNameEmailOnly"> <customerName>Kathleen Black</customerName> <email>email@example.com</email> </p:CustomerNameEmailOnly>
ftp\inboundarchive directory will contain a
customer.txt<date><time>.success file showing a file processed successfully. The
ftp\outboundsequence directory will contain a
CustomerNameEmailOnly.seq file listing the sequence of the files placed in the FTPWrite directory.
Once you have finished examining the output files, remember to stop the WebSphere Process Server before closing WebSphere Integration Developer.
Using adapter patterns can save you development time when working on SOA applications that use adapters. In WebSphere Integration Developer, there are adapter patterns for the FTP, Flat Files and Email adapters. Although using adapter patterns may not be applicable in all cases, they are a shortcut to developing an SOA application when they can be used, as demonstrated in this article.
- IBM WebSphere Business Process Management 6.1 information center
Contains information on: WebSphere Business Modeler, WebSphere Integration Developer, WebSphere Process Server, WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus, WebSphere Partner Gateway, WebSphere Business Services Fabric and WebSphere Business Monitor.
- IBM WebSphere Business Process
Management Samples and Tutorials
Includes a section with adapters and data handler samples.
application connectivity zone (formerly Business integration zone),
Provides technical resources to integrate your applications and processes.
Process Server and WebSphere Integration Developer,
Provides the technical resources you need to use WebSphere Process Server and WebSphere Integration Developer to integrate your applications and processes.
Dig deeper into Business process management on developerWorks
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