In the previous articles in this series, you learned how to implement your service components using business processes and state machines. Then you learned how to respond quickly to changing business conditions by implementing other components with business rules and selectors, both of which let you change parameters after you deploy an application. In this article, weâll look at more of the supporting features in WebSphere Integration Developer.
One challenge is sure to arise in a service-oriented application: what happens when two services need to work well together, but they donât understand how to communicate? Early on in this series, we explained that a component implementation calls another component using a reference. We pointed out that the interface of a reference must match the interface of the component to which it is wired. However, what if the interfaces donât match?
For example, suppose a referenceâs interface has a
retrieveCustomerData operation and the component to
which you want to wire that reference has an interface
getCustomerData operation. Looking a bit deeper,
the problem compounds if one of the business objects
getCustomerData operation returns has a field
custId, but the
expects the return parameter name to be just
In a small, localized application, the solution is quick: just change the interfaces so that everything matches. In practice though, your business partners often provide interfaces for services that you use, for example Web Service Definition Language (WSDL) files, so changing them is out of your control. Even if you could change the interface, it might break existing consumers of the service. On the client side, changing the interface of the reference might also be out of the question because you would have to change the implementation to use different names. WebSphere Integration Developer makes it very easy to get around this obstacle: it lets you create interface and business object maps.
If youâve ever tried to wire a reference to a component where there was a mismatch between the interfaces, a dialog box would have opened asking if you wish to create an interface map. This article will show you how easy it is to create different types of maps.
In addition to mapping, we will also explore human tasks. Automating business processes is essential to a companyâs efficiency and effectiveness. However, quite often, a business process still requires human intervention. For example, a bank loan approval process might require an experienced loan specialist to evaluate borderline loan applications. A retail store process that automatically re-orders inventory when the inventory level falls below a certain limit might require the store manager to approve all the orders with a large dollar value. Human intervention might also be required in dealing with exceptional cases during a business process. In situations similar to these, you can use a human task component when designing integration applications
A human task, as the name suggests, is a task that involves a human. It is a component in a module just like the others we have seen, such as a business process, business state machine or business rules. You might wonder what the difference is between the staff activity in WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, Version 5.1 and a human task component. You could only use a staff activity from within a business process, and its functionality was limited. For example, a staff activity did not allow escalations (an automatic reassigning of a task that has not been claimed or completed). In Version 6, a human task is a first-class component and is no longer restricted to being an internal activity in a business process. Furthermore, a human task component not only allows the computer to interact with a human, but it also allows human-to-computer and human-to-human interactions.
After we explain human tasks, interface maps, and business object maps, we will let you get your hands dirty again, this time by creating a human task with a mapping that enables two components with different interfaces to communicate with each other.
In the following sections, you will learn how to perform more tasks using WebSphere Integration Developer:
- Mapping interfaces and parameters
- Mapping business objects
- Implementing components as human tasks
- Creating your own human tasks
- Creating your own interface and business object maps
An interface map sits between two components with different interfaces and lets you say, "When I call OperationX of InterfaceA, send the request to OperationY of InterfaceB." Of course, the parameters of both operations might not match either. So, an interface map also lets you say, "Pass the value of Parameter1 of OperationX to Parameter2 of OperationY." If the parameters of both operations are of the same type, then thatâs all there is to an interface map. Often, however, the parameter types are different. In the Parameter Mapping section, we'll show you the various mapping tools that help you when parameter types are different.
For example, suppose an order-processing component needs
to call the
shipOrder operation of a shipping component.
However, the interface for the shipping component has an
ship, and both operations have
different names for their parameters. Figure 1 shows two interfaces: one containing
shipOrder operation and the other containing the
ship operation. Notice that the parameter names of each
operation are different. Figure 2
shows you an interface map that resolves these
Figure 1. Two operations that require a map
Figure 2. An interface map
At the top of the interface mapping editor, you connect operations of the interface on the left to operations of the interface on the right. For the operation parameters, the bottom of the editor shows mappings that you create by connecting the respective parameters (inputs and outputs) of each operation. A move mapping type is created by default when you connect parameters. We'll discuss the different types of parameter mappings shortly.
The map type is pointed at one end to indicate the
direction of the mapping. For example, the upper move
indicates that the
orderInfo input value gets passed to
order parameter, while the lower move indicates that
the value of the output parameter
ok gets passed to the
There are two ways to create an interface map. The first way is to use the interface map wizard (File - NewInterfaceMap), as Figure 3 shows. With this method, you select or create the source and target interfaces. The source interface is the interface that belongs to a reference of a component and the target interface belongs to the component being called from the reference.
Figure 3. New Interface Map wizard
The other way to create an interface map is to wire a reference of one component to another component. You use this method when the reference and component have different interfaces. The assembly editor asks you if you want to create an interface mapping between the source and target nodes (the nodes being the reference and the component, respectively).
After you have created an interface map, you need to define the mapping between the interface operations, as you can see at the top of Figure 4. You create a mapping by clicking next to an operation on the left and dragging the end of the connection to the corresponding interface on the right. When you select the connection between two operations, the parameter mappings display in the lower half of the editor. The next step is to draw connections between equivalent parameters.
Figure 4. Creating an interface map
After you have specified which operation of one interface corresponds to which operation of another interface, you need to map the operation parameters. As with an operation map, you connect inputs and outputs of one operation to the corresponding inputs and outputs of another operation. However, mapping corresponding operations requires only a line between them, while mapping data can be more complex. If the parameter types match, then you just connect the corresponding inputs or outputs as Figure 4 shows. Often, the types will not match, but the business object map editor helps you to map the data as we'll show you in the Business object maps section.
First, let's look at how you create a parameter mapping. For input parameter mappings, you drag a connection from an input parameter on the left to the corresponding input parameter on the right. For output parameter mappings, you drag the connection from right to left. After creating the mapping, the next step is to specify the type of map. You can select from a list of mapping types in the Description tab of the Properties view. In the sections that follow, we will explain the five types of mappings:
By default, when you connect two parameters, the type of map that is created is called a move parameter mapping. In the earlier example, we showed a move parameter mapping. With a move parameter mapping, the exact value of a source parameter will pass as-is to a target parameter. The type of each parameter, whether it is a string or a business object, must be the same. Move mapping types are 1-to-many, which means you can map a source parameter to one or more target parameters.
Sometimes, a target parameter requires only some of
the data from the source parameter. In this case, you
can use an extract. An extract parameter mapping takes
the value of a business object's attribute, which could
be a simple type or a nested business object, and puts
it into the target. Figure 5 shows a
variation on the earlier example where the
operation has two input parameters whose types are
Order business object used in the
shipOrder operation contains attributes with the same
Address types as you see in the XPath tree in
the bottom of the figure. The Properties view shows an
XPath expression that selects the
item attribute from
orderInfo. When you use the mapping, the values for
are passed to the
item parameter. We use a second extract
orderInfo as the source to transfer the
value to the
Figure 5. An extract parameter mapping
If the parameter types don't match, you use a map
instead of a move. A map parameter mapping lets you
reconcile different business object parameters. There
are numerous mismatches that can exist between two
business objects, even though each one contains
information that the other needs. A mismatch could occur
because the attributes of one business object are in a
different order and have different names than the
attributes of the other business object. Or a mismatch
could get quite complex: one business object might
represent a name with three attributes (
lastName), while another might represent
a name using just one attribute that is meant to hold a
comma delimited string. You might even have multiple
business objects whose individual parts need to be
mapped to or from one business object. When you use a
map, you specify a business object map that maps the
attributes of one business object to another. The
section on business object maps describes this mapping
type in detail.
You can also map a constant value to a target parameter. An assign parameter mapping lets you specify a constant value to put in a target parameter. This type of mapping has only a target. Therefore, to create an assign mapping, you can't create a connection between two parameters and change the type to assign (because a double-ended connection can't be an assign mapping). So, to create an assign mapping, right-click a target parameter (an input on the right or an output on the left) and select Create Transform - Assign. In the Properties view, you can enter the constant value.
You should use an assign mapping when a target operation contains a
parameter that is not present in the source operation.
The extra parameter might no longer be in use. Because a
map requires all targets to have a mapping, you can
assign some default value to the extra parameter. The
extra parameter could also always have the same value
when called from your module. For example, Figure 6 shows a
ship operation with an
orderType parameter that is not present in the
operation. The assign mapping passes a value of
express each time the map is used.
Figure 6. An assign parameter mapping
Java parameter mapping
For maps that require custom logic, you can use a Java
parameter mapping. A Java parameter mapping lets you
write arbitrary Java code to transform one object to
another. In the Details section of the Properties view,
you specify the name of the class, which must extend the
JavaMediation class contains a mediate method that
takes an object as input, which is the value that is to
be mapped, and returns an object that is the transformed
Business object maps
In the parameter mapping examples, you saw how to map the parameters between operations using mapping types such as move and extract. In this section, we'll look at what happens when the parameter types are not the same and you can't use a parameter map. As we noted earlier, the map parameter mapping type requires you to specify a business object map that handles the mapping between the attributes of two business objects. In this section, we show you what business object maps are and how to use them.
Mapping business object attributes is similar to mapping parameters: you connect source attributes to target attributes. Mapping attributes is also called transforming attributes. Because transforming attributes generally requires more flexibility than mapping parameters, there are more transform types. The next sections will cover the following transform types:
A move transform is analogous to the move parameter
mapping type. It assigns the value of a primitive-type
attribute in the source business object to a
primitive-type attribute in a target business object.
You can map one primitive-type attribute, such as a
string, to another, such as an integer. Keep in mind
that if the data cannot be converted at runtime, you
get an exception. For example, if the string "123a"
is mapped to an integer, you will see a
NumberFormatException in the server log.
Furthermore, unlike a move parameter mapping, you cannot map complex
types using a move transform. For mapping between
business objects, you need a submap, as we will describe
Figure 7. A move transform
A submap is another business object map that you use to
transform one business object to another. For example,
in Figure 8, the
PO business object
contains an Address business object. On the right, in
Order, there is also an
Address in the
object. The Details tab shows that the
object map maps
Because the source and target have the same type,
Address, the submap consists only of move transforms
between parameters with
Address attributes. This might remind
you of the extract parameter mapping earlier. If the
PO had two parameters,
shipTo, instead of just one
PO parameter, we could
have used an extract parameter mapping here.
Figure 8. A submap transform
An extract transform is a bit different than its parameter mapping counterpart because its source attribute must be a string. You use the extract transform to extract parts of a string and assign those parts to another string, or to any other primitive type, with the caveat we mentioned in the move transform section.
For example, Figure 9 shows
two extracts that separate the first name and last name
from a string with the format lastname, firstname. The
details for the second extract show that the part of the
name string up to the first comma gets copied to the
lastName attribute of the
Person object. The substring
index determines which section of the string, starting
0, to use. Therefore, the
contains the same details as the
except that the substring index is
1 (It uses the
second part of the string: the characters between the
first comma and the second). If the value of the
attribute is "Smith, Joe", then
firstName will get a
value of "Joe" and
lastName will get "Smith".
Figure 9: An extract transform
A join transform combines the values of two or more source attributes and copies them to a target attribute. The target of a join transform must be a string. You can think of a join transform as the inverse of the extract transform because it takes a set of string inputs (or any other primitive type, which will be converted to a string), and joins them into one string, optionally separated by delimiter.
In the extract transform example, we showed mapping a
comma-delimited string to separate first and last name
attributes. Often you need to map both ways.
Figure 10 shows you how to map back
Person business object to the
firstName contains the value "Joe" and
lastName contains "Smith", then the
gets the value "Joe,Smith" because
firstName has a
delimiter set to a comma.
You can check how the join concatenates the values by looking at the example at the bottom of the Details tab. Keep in mind that the delimeter can consist of multiple characters. The Prefix and Postfix fields let you add strings to add a prefix to and append the resulting joined string. You can also use the Reorder icons to change the order in which the attributes are concatenated.
Figure 10: A join transform
An assign transform sets a constant value to a target
attribute. Figure 11 shows an assign
transform that sets the
prefix attribute of
Figure 11: An assign transform
Custom, custom assign, and custom callout
To write Java code to specify the mapping logic between a source and a target attribute, you use a custom transform. If there is no source attribute, then you use a custom assign transform, which is similar to an assign transform, except that you use Java code to compute the assigned value. If there is no target attribute, then you use a custom callout transform, to initialize values.
You use a relationship transform when the same data has different names or different identities. The relationship transform is different than other mappings because with other mappings we are interested in connecting different attribute names or business objects that refer to the same data. A relationship transform goes one step further by also handling cases where the data is different but has the same meaning or refers to the same thing.
There are two types of relationship transforms: dynamic and static. A static relationship correlates different values that refer to the same thing. These types of values never, or rarely, change. A typical example is a state or province name: one system might use 2-letter designations such as ON, while another might use longer abbreviations such as Ont., and still another, full names such as Ontario.
When you map data from one attribute to another with a static relationship, you can also transform the data according to the table you create with the relationship editor. For example when the province attribute of one business object that has a value of "ON" is mapped to another business object attribute, the value assigned could be "Ontario."
You use a dynamic relationship to correlate data based
on primary keys. For example, a product in a store might
have one identifier on the inventory tracking system and
another on the suppliers system. Your system might have
an identifier in a generic business object that not only
contains the same data as identifiers in other business
objects, but something needs to keep track of which data
is actually the same. For example, when
which has a value of "123", is mapped to
a business object used in the supplier's interface), the
value of "a234" might need to be inserted so that the
correct item will be ordered from the suppliers system.
The relationship manager on WebSphere Process Server
takes care of this.
The two relationship articles, WebSphere Process Server relationship service, Parts 1 and 2, listed in the references section, take you through exercises that clarify how you would use both types of relationship transforms.
To store data that you want to reuse, you create variables. A variable can be a source and a target for each of the transform types described earlier. For example, if you have a value that you want to assign to many targets, you can use an assign to set a value to the variable, then use a move transform from that variable to multiple attributes.
As an example, Figure 12 shows a map
with a variable named
code that is populated with the
orderInfo.code. This value is used in
shipTo.code. Note that for this to
work, the execution order (indicated by the number on
the left of the transform type) of the assign to the
variable must be lower than the targets to which the
variable is mapped. Otherwise, the variable will be
uninitialized when it is used.
Figure 12: Using variables
WebSphere Integration Developer helps you develop solutions that allow different computer applications to work with each other. However, developing an integrated information system often involves supporting interactions with humans.
Human involvement takes several forms. For example, a person might be required to initiate a process instance that can then proceed on its own. A person might be required to deal with exceptional cases that the logic built into the application cannot handle, perhaps because the case is considered too complex or special. A case might also require human intervention because the normal processing has failed for some reason.
Having decided that a process should involve a human, developers are faced with the decision of how to implement this functionality. WebSphere Integration Developer provides a human task component, which greatly simplifies the work required to support human interaction with an SCA application.
A scenario for the involvement of a human in a service-oriented application is a process that requires a decision from a person to approve an order before proceeding, as shown in Figure 13.
Figure 13: A decision made by a human within a process
Consider some of the requirements for the scenario:
- A mechanism to get data to and from the user
- To be asynchronous and long running (because the human might not be able to respond immediately)
- An interface to enable the interaction. Since more than one process instance might require human involvement at any one time, the user interface needs to show the processes waiting for input and it needs to provide the details of a selected task
- A way to verify that the user has the right to perform the task
A human task satisfies these requirements, and provides a
stand-alone component just like business processes and
business state machines. It communicates with other
components using interfaces and business objects. Figure 14 shows a human task component
ApprovalHumanTask, that the process shown in Figure 13 calls.
Figure 14: A human task component
However, human task components are unique because they support only a single interface that might have only a single operation. This reflects the fact that a human task defines only a single interaction, multiple interactions require multiple human tasks. Let's consider a file folder analogy. The folder contains information required to identify and complete the task. The user adds any required comments or data to the contents of the folder and returns it.
Human tasks are inherently asynchronous and long running. It would not be realistic to assume that a human can process all requests immediately. Rather, tasks requiring human intervention must be managed on a queue for completion when a human is available. Using our file folder analogy, imagine an inbox with a stack of file folders waiting to be processed. Each will remain in the inbox until it can be processed and re-filed.
Types of human tasks
There are three types of human tasks, which we will look at in the next sections:
Participating human tasks
In a participating human task, a component, such as the
OrderProcessing component in Figure
14, calls a human task component. In other words,
the human task participates in getting work done.
Figure 15: A participating human task
Originating human tasks
An originating human task calls another component. Instead of being assigned work, it begins the process of getting work done. An originating human task represents a human requesting something rather than fulfilling a request.
Figure 16: An originating human task
Pure human tasks
A pure human task is similar to an originating human task because a human requests it. However, with a pure human task, another human rather than a computer application fulfills the service request. In this case, the application mediates interaction between humans.
Figure 17: A pure human task
Creating a human task
To add a human task to a module, select File - New - Human Task. The New Human Task wizard lets you specify a name and container for the task. The second and third pages of the wizard let you indicate the kind of task you want to create and specify its interface. The human task editor then opens for the newly created task.
Now let's look at how you can configure human tasks.
Staff settings â roles
As you can imagine, you need a way to associate a human task with a specific person or any member of a group of people who is qualified and permitted to complete the task. You can also assign roles (for example, Potential Owner, Reader) to a human task so that specific access rights can be granted.
Figure 18: Staff settings
WebSphere Process Server includes a built-in Web-based user interface, the Business Process Choreographer (BPC) Explorer, for human tasks. This interface is suitable for testing and administration purposes, but it is not meant to be used as a user interface for human tasks in a real-world application. The developer should develop a custom user interface to display the contents of the task and allow the user to work on it.
WebSphere Integration Developer includes built-in support for two kinds of user interface implementations, but you can add others via extensions. The supported user interface types are JSPs and portlets. In the client settings area of the editor, you can select the kind of interface to supply and, in the details area, specify where the interface implementation is located. References at the end of the article offer specific details about implementing a custom interface.
Figure 19: Client settings
When a user claims a task, the intention is to complete it within a reasonable period of time. However, there are often circumstances that prevent timely completion. For example, the user might be waiting for additional material before making a decision. What happens if the process that is calling the task might require a response within a certain period? In response to such cases, a human task allows the developer to specify an escalation to occur if a task is not claimed or completed within a certain period.
When a human task is invoked, it is either in the ready (not yet claimed) or the claimed state. Escalations are like timers in a business state machine. When a task has entered a state, the escalation will trigger and carry out its specified action if the task does not leave the state by the time specified in the escalation. You can specify a series of escalations where each one is triggered as soon as a duration expires and while the task remains in the particular state.
Another state for a human task is the subtask state. When a user claims a task, the user can delegate a portion of task to another user, which puts the human task in the subtask state. You can add escalations to the subtask state to ensure that this portion of the task is completed so that the overall task can proceed.
Figure 20 shows a human task that will send a notification if the task is not finished within two hours. The Verb tab contains the name of the person who will be notified if the escalation occurs. In the following sections we will explore escalations in the application you will build. The references at the end of the article also offer more information on using the Human Task manager and developing your own client to assign subtasks and respond to escalations.
Figure 20: Escalation settings
Inline human tasks
Rather than existing as an individual component, an inline human task, which is another form of a participating human task, is defined inside a business process. It is only accessible from within the process. One advantage of this human task is that it can access the context of the process (for example, processes variables), allowing multiple human tasks within the process to share information.
Figure 21: An inline human task
Putting it all together
To understand how to map interfaces and business objects
and invoke a human task, we'll take you through the
process of mapping two interfaces and then show you how
to request a human task from a process. In the first
scenario, suppose you have an order-processing system
and a business partner who handles the shipping. To ship
items, you use your partner's Web service.
Unfortunately, the format is not compatible with your
partner's Web service input even though the
business object that is used in your module contains
enough information to ship an order. For example, the
Order business object contains a
object and a list of
Item objects as Figure 22 shows.
Figure 22: The OrderProcessing business object and its contents
Figure 23 shows the business objects expected in the Web service interface. The interfaces that use these business objects also don't match as Figure 24 shows.
Figure 23: The ShippingService business objects
Figure 24: The placeOrder and shipOrder interfaces
In our scenario, an order must be approved by an employee before it can be shipped. If the task is not completed within a certain time, then it is escalated. For the purpose of illustration, we will just use the defaults which allow anyone to claim the task or handle the escalation.
The project interchange file (in the downloads section
at the end of this article) contains a module with an
order-processing component. The component is implemented
with a business process and has
ShippingPartner references with
Shipping interfaces. There is also a library that
ShippingService WSDL file that accesses
your partner's Web service.
In the Business Integration view, the contents of the
WSDL file (which is the interface to the Web service)
display as any other interface. For example, the
parameter types (the WSDL message parts), display as
business objects. In addition, there is an import with
ShippingService interface that you can use to call
the Web service.
Let's start by importing the project interchange file that contains the supporting components, interfaces, and business objects:
- Download the mappingexamplebegin.zip file from the Downloads section at the end of the article.
- Click File - Import - Project Interchange, and then click Next.
Click Browse, browse to the
mappingexamplebegin.zipfile that you just downloaded, and click Open. This zip file is the project interchange file.
Check Select All, and then click Finish. The
imported modules open in the Business Integration
view and, as the project builds, you see a
Building workspacemessage in the lower right corner of the workbench. Wait for the workspace to finish building.
Implementing human tasks
Now that the workspace is built, you need to use the new human task wizard to create a human task to implement the ApproveOrder interface.
- Under the MappingExample project , right-click the Business Logic category and select New - Human Task.
ApprovalHumanTaskfor the name, and add it to the
MappingExamplemodule. Then click Next.
- Leave the default setting as Participating Human Task, and then click Next.
- Ensure Select an existing Interface is selected, and then choose ApproveOrder for the interface, and click Finish.
The Human Task editor opens for
you can set the necessary properties for it
- Under the Client settings section, right-click Client settings and select Add - BPC Explorer.
- Under the Escalation section, right-click Claimed and then select Add - Escalation.
In the Details tab of the Properties for the
escalation, ensure that Finished is selected for the
Expected task state, and enter
2minsfor the Duration until escalated.
- Save the editor contents.
The next steps allow the OrderProcessing component to reference the new human task.
- Double click MappingExample - Mapping example to open the assembly editor.
- Select ApprovalHumanTask under the Human Tasks category and drag it to the assembly diagram.
Wire the OrderApprovalPartner reference of the
OrderProcessing component to ApprovalHumanTask as
Figure 25 shows.
Figure 25: MappingExample assembly diagram
Creating an interface map
Looking at the assembly diagram in Figure 25 , you see that you need
to wire the
OrderProcessing reference to the
service import because
OrderProcessing should call
ShippingService. Let's see what happens when we try to
create a wire when the source and target interfaces
- Hover your mouse over the reference on the right of the OrderProcessing component.
- Drag the handle that appears to the ShippingService component. The Add Wire dialog box opens.
The assembly editor detects that you are trying to wire a source to a target whose interfaces are different. The Add Wire dialog box, which you see in Figure 26, opens so that you can choose to create an interface mapping or add the appropriate interface to the import. The next steps help you start creating the interface map.
Figure 26: Wiring components in the MappingExample assembly diagram
- To close the Add Wire dialog box, click OK. This step creates a new interface map, as shown in Figure 27.
- Double-click OrderProcessingToShippingServiceMap to open the interface mapping editor.
Figure 27: An interface map between two components
The next steps help you define the mapping between the
- Hover your mouse over the placeOrder operation interface (shown in Figure 28) in the interface mapping editor, and then drag the handle that appears to the shipOrder operation.
- Click the connection that is created between the two interfaces to display the parameters of each interface.
- Hover your mouse over the order parameter and connect the handle to the shipTo parameter
You have just created a mapping between the
shipTo parameters. By default, it is a move mapping
type. However, we need a business object map so that we
can map the attributes of the order parameter to the
- Hover over the move map type and drag the handle to the orderInfo parameter.
- Select the move type mapping and open the Description tab in the Properties view.
- Change the Parameter Mapping Type to map.
- In the same manner, connect the orderNumber parameter in the shipOrder operation to the orderNumber parameter in the placeOrder operation. Leave move as the map type.
- Save the editor contents.
Figure 28: The OrderProcessingToShippingServiceMap interface map
Your interface map should now look similar to the one shown in Figure 28. There is a red âX' in the map connection because there is no business object map defined yet. The next steps will create the business object map.
Creating a business object map
- Select the Details tab in the Properties view for the map, and then click New next to Business Object Map.
In the New Business Object Map dialog box that
PlaceOrderToShipOrderMapfor the Name, and then click Next.
- Ensure that the Order business object is selected for the inputs and that destination and order are selected for the outputs as Figure 29 shows. These types correspond to each parameter at the source (inputs) and target (outputs) that you chose for the mapping.
Figure 29: Creating a new business object map
- Click Finish.
- PlaceOrderToShipOrderMap should appear as the setting for Business Object Map. If it does not, save and close the interface editor, then reopen it and select PlaceOrderToShipOrderMap from the list.
Figure 30: Setting the business object map
At this point you have created an empty business object
map so you can map the
Order business object to the
Order business objects. By following the
next steps, you will create the mappings between the
various business object attributes.
- Double-click the map type mapping in the interface map editor to open the business object map editor for the map if it is not already open.
- In the business object map editor, connect items in the Order business object on the left to items in the order business object on the right. A submap transform is automatically created because both items are business objects.
In the Details tab of the Properties view for the
submap transform, click New next to business object
ItemsMapfor the name, and then click Next.
Ensure Item (with namespace
http://MappingExample/) is selected for the inputs, and that item (with namespace
http://e.z.orders.com/) is selected for outputs.
- Click Finish.
In the business object map editor that opens for
ItemsMap, connect the attributes as shown in Figure 31.
- Save the submap editor contents and switch back to the PlaceOrderToShipOrderMap editor.
Figure 31: The ItemsMap business object map
You have just implemented the submap transform that is shown in Figure 32. Next, we'll map the attributes that contain the destination information:
Connect firstName and lastName from the
Orderbusiness object on the left to firstname and lastname respectively in
destinationon the right (first expand customerInfo if it is not already expanded).
Connect street, city, state, and zip from
Orderon the left to address in
destinationon the right. You have four source attributes mapped to one target attribute.
Figure 32: Business object mapping
Your map should now look like the one in Figure 32. Notice that when you connect many attributes to one target attribute, the editor creates a join transform and redirects all the targets as inputs to the join (you could also have connected the source attributes directly to the join).
For large business objects, a map quickly becomes very complex, making it hard to tell which attribute is mapped to which. The business object mapping editor can help by providing you with different views of the map. In Figure 32, where the transforms are sorted by target, it's getting hard to follow the source of the transforms, so Figure 33 shows how the map looks when the transforms are sorted by source.
Figure 33: A business object transform sorted by source
The next step is to tweak what happens with the four attributes when you merge them into the address attribute:
- Open the property details for the join transform.
- Enter ", " (comma and space, without the quotes) as the delimiter for street, city, and state. Notice that the example updates to show you how the merged attributes will look as you add delimiters, as the bottom of Figure 34 shows.
Figure 34: Join details
You are finished. Now you can test your application with these last few steps:
Testing the application
- Switch back to the assembly editor for MappingExample, and select the OrderProcessing, ApprovalHumanTask, and OrderProcessingToShippingServiceMap components (after selecting OrderProcessing, hold down the Ctrl key while clicking ApprovalHumanTask and OrderProcessingToShippingServiceMap).
Right-click any of the selected components and
select Test Components. This open the
integration test client. Because
ShippingServicewas not selected to be tested, it will be emulated. (The Web service described by the ShippingService WSDL file doesn't actually exist. You might want to experiment with the tools and create it.). If you switch to the Configuration tab at the bottom of the test client, you will see
- Ensure OrderProcessing is selected for the component name.
Itembusiness object to the list of items for the order by right-clicking the items row in the Initial request parameters section, and selecting Add Element.
- For each of the value fields, enter any values, such as those in Figure 35, and click Continue.
- When prompted to select a deployment location, choose any WebSphere Process Server, and click OK.
Figure 35: Testing the mapping application
The application deploys to the server. Eventually the process stops at the invocation of the human task.
Figure 36: Waiting for human task approval
- Select the server in the Server view and, from the Launch context menu, select Launch BPC Explorer.
Click My Tasks. The task list shows your task
waiting to be completed, as Figure 37 shows. Check the box next to the task and click Work
on to claim the task.
Figure 37: List of task instances waiting to be claimed
Rather than clicking Complete under Available
actions for the task, as Figure 38 shows, just wait for two minutes to pass to trigger the
Figure 38. Completing the task
The task is now in the claimed state and will stay there until either the escalation, or the original task completes. Because you have set the duration until escalated time for the task to move from the claimed to finished state to two minutes, after two minutes elapses, you see the task in the escalations list
- On the left side of the BPC Explorer, click My Escalations.
- Click ApprovalHumanTask, and then click Work on. The same page displays as in
- Click Complete.
The task then appears, showing the input data, and
waits for your input. To return the default value of
Eventually you will be prompted to enter a value for the
output parameter of the
ShippingService import (it is
being emulated). Notice that the information you entered
in the previous steps has been mapped to the
orderInfo parameters as Figure 39
shows. To complete the process, enter any value for
orderNumber, and then click Continue. The
parameter of the
ShippingService interface is
mapped back to the
orderNumber parameter of the
Figure 39. Emulating the ShippingService import
Human tasks, interface maps, and business object maps are useful complements to the various component types available with WebSphere Integration Developer. In this article, we introduced you to the main concepts of human tasks and the different types of maps and showed you how to use them in your order processing application.
|MappingExample module||mappingexamplebegin.zip ( HTTP | FTP )||15 KB|
|Complete MappingExample module||mappingexamplecomplete.zip ( HTTP | FTP )||19 KB|
- A guided tour of WebSphere Integration Developer -- Part 1: Get a driver's view of the WebSphere Integration Developer landscape
- A guided tour of WebSphere Integration Developer -- Part 2: SOA development with WebSphere Integration Developer
- A guided tour of WebSphere Integration Developer -- Part 3: Building a simple service-oriented application
- A guided tour of WebSphere Integration Developer -- Part 4: Unleashing visual snippets and business state machines in your service-oriented application
- A guided tour of WebSphere Integration Developer -- Part 5: Business processes in a service-oriented world
- A guided tour of WebSphere Integration Developer -- Part 6: Becoming more on-demand using dynamic business rules
- WebSphere Process Server relationship service, Part 1: Static relationships
- WebSphere Process Server relationship service, Part 2: Dynamic relationships
- How to embed a new client type into the human task editor
- Installing and starting Business Process Choreographer Explorer
- XML Path Language (XPath)
- Business Process Choreographer Samples (Select Human Task Features, and Interaction with Processes - Custom JSF Client).
- WebSphere Process Server V6.0 Business Process Choreographer Programming Model(Section 6.3 Human Task Editor)
- Business Process Execution Language for Web Services version 1.1
- Business Process with BPEL4WS: Understanding BPEL4WS
- WebSphere Integration Developer product information
- WebSphere Process Server product information
- WebSphere Process Server: IBM's new foundation for SOA
- Build a Hello World SOA application
- Service Component Architecture
- Common Event Infrastructure
- developerWorks: WebSphere Process Server and WebSphere Integration Developer resources
- developerWorks: WebSphere Business Integration zone
- developerWorks: WebSphere development tools zone
- Meet the experts: WebSphere Integration Developer
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