Making the move to the Liberty profile, Part 1: Determining migration suitability using the Liberty Technology Preview

This article series addresses a recent trend among many IT organizations to move their existing Java™ EE applications from Full Platform Java EE servers, such as WebLogic Server, Oracle Application Server, and JBoss Application Server to more lightweight, scalable, and reliable servers, such as the IBM® WebSphere® Application Server Liberty profile. In this three-part series: Part 1 addresses how to evaluate your existing Java EE applications to determine their migration suitability to the Liberty profile, Part 2 shows you how to quickly migrate the Java EE resources that are required for running the applications on the Liberty profile, and Part 3 provides step-by-step instructions to quickly migrate your Java EE applications and resources to the Liberty profile.

Sherif Ali (ALYS@ke.ibm.com), IT Specialist , IBM

Sherif Ali is an IBM IT Specialist with over eight years of experience in IT. Sherif has been a member of the World Wide WebSphere Competitive Migration Team since it's creation in 2011. He works with customers to help them realize the value WebSphere Middleware can bring them over other competitive products. In addition, Sherif works with startups on how they can leverage technology to succeed and how IBM can help them get there.



Jagdish Komakula (k.jagdish@in.ibm.com), Certified IT Specialist, IBM

Jagdish Komakula is an IBM Certified IT Specialist, currently working with World-Wide WebSphere Competitive Migrations Team from IBM Software Labs, Hyderabad , India. He has over nine years of IT experience in WebSphere administration, migrations, Java™, J2EE, XML, Service Oriented Architecture, Mobile, Cloud and related technologies. With extensive experience on WebSphere components across various platforms & releases, Jagdish executes WebSphere Competitive Migration Assessments, PoC's and Workshop's worldwide.



Isa Torres (imtorres@us.ibm.com), Application Consultant, IBM

Isa Torres is a member of the WorldWide WebSphere Competitive Migration Team where she currently performs the role of IT Specialist. She has held various roles within IBM in software development and customer support. Her current focus is to enable and assist customers in the process of JEE application migration to WebSphere Application Server by delivering workshops and performing application migrations while developing reusable tools that can assist in future customer engagements.



David Van de Pol (vandepol@ca.ibm.com), IT Specialist, IBM

David Van de Pol is an IBM WebSphere Migration Specialist, currently working with World-Wide WebSphere Competitive Migrations Team from IBM Software Labs, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. He has been a member of the migration team since it's creation in 2011, and has completed many customer migrations from WebLogic, OAS, JBoss, Tomcat, as well as version to version migrations. David came from the WebSphere development team, and now also works on developing and enhancing migration tools used during WebSphere Competitive Migration Assessments and PoC's. David has also worked on creating and performing Migration Workshop's worldwide.



Donald Vines (dhvines@us.ibm.com), Executive IT Architect, IBM

Don Vines is an Executive IT Architect for IBM in the United States. He has been the technical lead of the Worldwide WebSphere Competitive Migration Team since its inception in 2011. In this role, he spends most of his time migrating enterprise applications to the WebSphere V8.x platform for IBM's customers located throughout the world. He is a past representative of the Object Management Group (OMG), where he co-invented the Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) that is used throughout the internet. Don is also an IBM Senior Certified IT Specialist, Sun Certified Enterprise Architect, Sun Certified Java Programmer, and OMG Certified UML2 Professional.



23 April 2014

Also available in Chinese

Introduction

Recently, the Java EE 6 specification introduced the notion of profiles. As defined by that specification, a profile is a collection of Java EE technologies and APIs that address specific developer communities and application types. The following profiles were defined:

  • The Full Platform is designed for developers who require the full set of Java EE technologies and APIs for enterprise application development.
  • The Web Profile contains web technologies that are a subset of the full platform. It is designed for developers who do not require the full set of Java EE APIs.

The existing server profile in IBM WebSphere Application Server always provides an implementation of the Java EE 6 Full Platform specification, and so it is now referred to as the Full profile to distinguish it from the new Liberty profile.

The Liberty profile uses components from the same code base as WebSphere Application Server Full profile. It runs those components on a new kernel in a distinct server process. It can also be provisioned with those features that are required by the applications that are deployed on it. This liberates users from having to deploy their applications to a container that has more features than are required by their applications.

The Liberty profile has been certified as a Java EE 6 Web Profile compliant server. The Liberty profile also supports some of the Java EE technologies that are only available from the Java EE 6 Full Platform. That is, the Liberty profile enables you to construct a custom profile (a collection of Java technologies and APIs ) that could be less than, equal to, or greater than the Java EE 6 Web Profile. Thus, the Liberty profile is a Java EE 6 Web Profile (plus) server.

In the past, it has been a common practice for many IT organizations to develop applications on lightweight containers (such as the Liberty profile) and to deploy them to Full Platform Java EE containers. There are few porting issues with this use case as you are moving an application that was developed using a subset of the APIs into a container that supports a superset of those APIs. Many articles have been written on this use case (see Resources).

More recently, there has been a trend in the IT industry to replace existing Full Platform Java EE servers with lightweight containers. To do so, applications that were developed using Full Platform Java technologies and APIs must be moved into lightweight containers. Depending on the APIs used, moving them could be quite easy or very complex - but it might be difficult to determine the APIs that are used, as the original developers could have left the company and the code base might be hundreds of thousands of lines of code. Thus, tooling is required to assist enterprises in determining the suitability of moving their applications before trying to replace their Full Platform Java EE servers with lightweight containers.

Java technologies and APIs refer to those classes and interfaces that are defined in the context of the Java and Javax packages and may be available to applications that are running in traditional Full Platform Java EE Servers.

This article focuses on the migration of applications from third party Java EE servers to the Liberty profile. This article introduces the Liberty Java Technology Rule Set that is now available in the Technology Preview. The Liberty Technology Rule Set identifies the use of Java technologies and APIs that might be present in Full Platform servers but are not currently present in the Liberty profile, and advises you on how to alter your application (if it uses any of those Full Platform APIs) with equivalent functionality.


Background and terminology

The WebSphere Application Server Migration Toolkit is provided by IBM to assist enterprises quickly and cost effectively move their Java EE applications from third party Full Platform Java EE servers to the WebSphere Application Server Full platform.

The Migration Toolkit provides a number of existing competitive migration rule sets (that is, collection of rules). The Migration Toolkit uses them to scan deployment descriptors (XML files), JSP source files, and Java source files for non-portable code. It reports migration issues in the Software Analyzer view of your Eclipse-based IDE and provides help to assist you in resolving those problems. These rule sets support competitive migrations from these Java servers to the WebSphere Application Server V8.5.x Full platform.

  • Apache Tomcat Server (Versions 6.0 and 7.0)
  • JBoss Application Server (Java EE 5 and earlier versions)
  • Oracle Application Server (Java EE 5 and earlier versions)
  • WebLogic Server (Java EE 5 and earlier versions)

The existing competitive migration rule sets apply when migrating applications to the Liberty profile as well, but there are some rules that are absent. For example, the existing competitive migration rule sets do not take into account the differences between the Java technologies and APIs that are available in the third party Java EE servers and those that are not available in the Liberty profile. To fill that gap, a new tool, the IBM WebSphere Application Server Migration Toolkit – Liberty Technology Preview is now available.

Combining the existing competitive migration rule sets with the Liberty Technology Preview (for example, JBoss Application Server Rule Set plus Liberty Technology Preview) enables you to identify most of the porting issues related to moving your existing Java EE applications from third party Java EE servers to the Liberty profile.


WebSphere Application Server edition comparison

WebSphere Application Server V8.5.x is available in a number of different editions. These editions are grouped by the programming models and other features they contain. All product editions contain the Liberty features, but the set of features that is available varies in each edition (see Resources):

  • WebSphere Application Server is a Java EE 6 Full Platform compatible implementation that is available in four editions:
    • WebSphere Application Server Express
    • WebSphere Application Server Base
    • WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment (ND)
    • WebSphere Application Server for z/OS®
  • WebSphere Application Server Liberty Core is a further edition with a basic set of features that provide a Java EE 6 Web Profile compatible implementation. It does not contain the WebSphere Application Server Full profile
  • Liberty profile is shipped as a feature of the WebSphere Application Server Express, Base, ND, and z/OS editions. Liberty profile is not a separate product. It is a runtime with a feature set that varies by WebSphere Application Server edition. The Liberty profiles in the WebSphere Application Server editions are differentiated as follows (Figure 1):
    • Liberty profile in the WebSphere Application Server Express and Base editions contains the same feature set. This feature set includes the Liberty Core edition features plus: Web services, JMS, MongoDB, and so forth.
    • Liberty profile in the Network Deployment edition includes the Liberty features that come with the Express and Base offerings plus the ability to cluster the Liberty server.
    • Liberty profile in the z/OS edition includes the Liberty features that come with the ND offering plus z/OS specific features.
    Figure 1. Liberty feature set
    Liberty feature set

Java technology comparison

As Figure 1 shows, the Liberty feature set includes many of the Java technologies and APIs. Although the Liberty V8.5.x feature set is a superset of the Web Profile Java EE specification, it is a subset of the Java technologies that are in the Full Platform Java EE servers.

Table 1 compares the Java technologies that are supported by the Liberty profile with the Java technologies that are supported by Full Platform Java EE application servers. If your applications use the Java technologies in this table then they are great candidates for running on the Liberty profile.

Applications that are great candidates for migration might still have some porting issues in the use of those Java technologies. If so, these are noted in the table and you can identify those types of issues and their fixes by running one of the existing competitive migration rule sets (for example, the JBoss Application Server Rule Set) against your application as a second step.

Refer to the programming model support and Liberty features in Resources for the complete list of supported APIs. Table 1 lists some of the more popular features that are available in the Liberty profile V8.5.x. See below for the list of unsupported APIs and implementations, and how to handle those problems if your applications happen to use them.

Table 1. Java resources and Liberty profile
Java technologyLiberty profileJava EE application serversNotes
Java APIs for RESTful Web Services (JAX-RS) 1.1 YesYes
Java APIs for XML Based Web Services (JAX-WS) 2.2YesYes
Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) 2.2YesYes
Java Servlet 3.0YesYes
JavaServer Pages (JSP) 2.2 YesYes
Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) 3,1 Lite subsetYesYes
Java Persistence API (JPA) 2.0YesYesLiberty supports the OpenJPA provider and alternate JPA providers, such as Hibernate and TopLink. To use alternate JPA providers, declare the provider class in the persistence.xml file and make sure the JPA provider is deployed to the Liberty server (the JARs are available on the classpath).
Java Message Service (JMS) 1.1 and Message Driven Beans (MDB) 3.1YesYesThere are seldom application changes for JMS and MDBs. But you will need to configure JMS resources as required by the MDB container.
Java Transaction API (JTA) 1.1YesYes
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) 4.0YesYesThere are seldom application changes for JDBC. But you will need to configure the driver, and specify the driver’s JAR location in the server.xml file.
Java Management Extensions (JMX) 2.0YesYesIf the application uses Java EE server specific domains to create the ObjectName then they will need to be migrated. These ObjectNames cannot be used to reference JMX MBeans in Liberty. See Resources for working with MBeans on Liberty.
Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) YesYesIf the application uses Java EE server specific properties to create the InitialContext then they will need to be migrated. These InitialContexts cannot be used for JNDI lookups in Liberty.

How the tool works

The Liberty Technology Rule Set is built on the Migration Toolkit. The Migration Toolkit includes a number of rule sets to scan Java EE applications for the use of vendor specific deployment descriptors, JSP files with proprietary APIs, and Java code with proprietary APIs (see Resources):

  • JBoss to WebSphere Application Migration Tool
  • Oracle AS to WebSphere Application Migration Tool
  • Tomcat to WebSphere Application Migration Tool
  • WebLogic to WebSphere Application Migration Tool

Like the other tools, the Liberty Technology Preview is packaged as an Eclipse plug-in that enables you to scan and evaluate Java source code and XML deployment descriptors. The rules scan applications for the use of Java technologies and APIs that are not supported in the Liberty profile.

The Liberty Technology Rule Set, used in conjunction with the other Migration Toolkit Rule Sets, has been effective in finding the major sources of portability problems in moving Java EE applications to the Liberty profile.

Table 2 lists each rule with its corresponding help and migration complexity to the Liberty profile V8.5.x. Rules with a low complexity identify problems that can be fixed with little or no code changes to the application. These applications are highly suitable for running on the Liberty profile. Rules with a high complexity identify problems that will require more of a rewrite than a port. As such, you may or may not want to invest the time and effort to rewrite them to run on the Liberty profile.

The following rules reflect those Java technologies and APIs that are unavailable in the Liberty profile V8.5.x. As new Java technologies and APIs are added to the Liberty profile, some of these rules will likely be removed. This means that applications not suitable for migration to Liberty profile V8.5.x might be suitable for migration to later Liberty profile versions.

Table 2. Rule factors
Liberty technology ruleCorresponding help Migration complexity
Asynchronous method invocations for Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) are unavailableEJB asynchronous methods are not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses EJB asynchronous methods, you can select one of these options:

  • Evaluate if ManagedExecutorService instances meet the requirements for EJB asynchronous methods. If so, this Java EE capability is enabled by the concurrent-1.0 feature in Liberty profile and Liberty Core.
  • Deploy this part of your application in WebSphere Application Server Full profile.
High
Remote interfaces for EJB are unavailableRemote EJB interfaces are not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses Remote interfaces, you can select one of these options:

  • Define and use Local interfaces for the Remote EJBs that your application is calling.
  • Deploy the Remote EJBs in the WebSphere Application Server Full profile and make remote calls from the Liberty profile. This option requires EJB client JAR files and the IBM Thin Client for EJBs.
  • Expose EJB methods for remote use from Liberty profile via web services. A WAR Router project is not needed on Liberty profile to expose EJBs as web services. This option is problematic when the propagation of transaction context or security context between JVMs is required.
Note: The first option is a low complexity solution.
High
EJB 1.x/2.x is unavailableEnterprise JavaBeans (EJB) 1.x/2.x are not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses EJB 1.x/2.x modules, you can select one of these options:

  • Deploy this part of your application in WebSphere Application Server Full profile.
  • Upgrade the application to use the EJB 3.1 Lite specification.
Notes: Regarding the second option:

The upgrade of session beans and message-driven beans is easy, but client applications might break due to changes in the client view of EJBs between EJB 1.x/2.x and EJB 3.

The upgrade of entity beans is difficult, but can be simplified if your application uses design patterns; such as DTO, session facade, and DAO.

High
Timer service for EJB is unavailableThe EJB Timer Service is not supported on Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses the EJB Timer Service, you can select one of these options:

  • Deploy this part of your application in the WebSphere Application Server Full profile.
  • Use other third-party scheduling libraries.
Note: Although the second option is listed as a complex approach, its complexity can be simplified if a small number of timers are involved.
High
JavaMail is unavailableThe JavaMail API and its resource references are not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application requires JavaMail, you can programmatically create the Mail Session in the application and place the corresponding JavaMail implementation JAR files in a location visible to the application classloader, such as in the WEB-INF/lib directory.

Note: If you do not have the JavaMail libraries then you can download and use the JavaMail API Reference implementation.

Low
Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA) is unavailable JCA API, resource references, and resource adaptor definitions are not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses JCA, you can deploy this part of your application to the WebSphere Application Server Full profile.

High
Java EE Application Deployment API is unavailableJava EE Application Deployment API is not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses Java EE Application Deployment API, you can deploy this part of your application in the WebSphere Application Server Full profile.

High
Java EE Management API is unavailableThe Java EE Management API is not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses the Java EE Management API, you can deploy this part of your application in the WebSphere Application Server Full profile.

High
Java Authorization Contract for Containers (JACC) API is unavailableJACC API is not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses JACC API, you can deploy this part of your application in the WebSphere Application Server Full profile.

High
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is unavailableSession Initiation Protocol (SIP) Servlet API and its deployment descriptors are not supported in Liberty profile.

If your application uses SIP API, you can deploy this part of your application in the WebSphere Application Server Full profile.

High
Java Portlet is unavailableThe Java Portlet API and its deployment descriptors are not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses the Java Porlet API, you can select one of these options:

  • Deploy this part of your application in the WebSphere Application Server Full profile.
  • Use the new Java Porlet Liberty features available on the WASdev repository (development use only).
High
Java API for XML-based RPC (JAX-RPC) is unavailableJAX-RPC is not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses JAX-RPC, you can select one of these options:

  • Use WebSphere Application Server Full profile with its native JAX-RPC engine.
  • Migrate the JAX-RPC web services to JAX-WS web services.
  • Use Liberty with the Apache AXIS 1 JAX-RPC Engine.
Note: The third option is a low complex approach.
High
Java API for XML Registries (JAXR) is unavailableJAXR is not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses the JAXR, then you can deploy this part of your application in the WebSphere Application Server Full profile.

High
The getRealPath() returns null from non-expanded WARThe getRealPath() method returns a null value if the application has been deployed from a web archive (WAR) file.

To circumvent this restriction of the Java EE specification, you can deploy the application as an expanded web application; for example, by unzipping it into a directory named after the WAR file.

If your Web application is contained inside an Enterprise Archive (EAR) file, you will need to expand both the EAR file and corresponding WAR file.

Low
Java APIs for XML Messaging (JAXM) is unavailableJAXM APIs are not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses JAXM APIs, you can deploy this part of your application in the WebSphere Application Server Full profile.

High
Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSLT) 2.x is unavailableXSTL 1.0 is supported in all WebSphere Application Server editions.

If your application requires an XSLT 2.0 engine, you can place the corresponding XSLT 2.0 implementation jar(s) in a location visible to the application classloader, such as in the WEB-INF/lib directory.

Ensure that the XSLT engine corresponds to the version in your .xsl or .xslt transformation file. For example, Saxon 9.5 implements the XSLT 2.0 specification.

Low
JavaServer Faces (JSF) 1.x is unavailableLiberty profile supports JavaServer Faces (JSF) 2.0. JSF 2.0 is backwards compatible with JSF 1.2 and 1.1. However, older JSF applications might still encounter compatibility issues when running on Liberty profile.

If your web application is experiencing such compatibility issues, you can include your own JSF 1.1/1.2 implementation with the application. For example, by placing the JSF implementation JAR files in the WEB-INF/lib directory. You will also need to remove the jsf-2.0 feature from the server configuration.

If you do not have the JSF 1.1/1.2 libraries, you can download the JSF implementation version that corresponds to the JSF version specified in your faces-config.xml.

Low
Java EE Application Client is unavailableJava EE Application Client modules are not supported in Liberty profile or Liberty Core.

If your application uses Java EE Application Clients, you can select one of these options:

  • Convert this part of you application into a stand-alone Java application with remote access to Java EE services.
  • Deploy this part of your application in the WebSphere Application Server Full Profile.
High

Using the tool

This section shows you how to get started using the Liberty Technology Rule Set to determine the suitability of migrating your applications from third party Java EE servers and running them on the Liberty profile.

The Liberty Technology Rule Set requires that the Migration Toolkit has been installed on either Eclipse or on IBM Rational Application Developer tested platforms, which include:

  • Eclipse 3.6.2, 3.7, 4.2, and 4.3
  • IBM Rational Application Developer versions 7.5 to 9.0
  • IBM Rational Software Architect versions 7.5 to 8.5

To analyze an application for migration suitability, the application must be imported into your Eclipse-based IDE. If the application is not already in Eclipse, an easy way to import the application and organize it in projects that reflect their structure as EAR, WAR, and EJB files is by using the Eclipse import function:

  1. Import the selected applications into the IDE.
    1. Select File > Import menu option.
    2. If the selected application is packaged as an EAR, select Java EE > EAR file. If the application is packaged as a WAR, then select Web > WAR file.
    3. Create projects for all EJB modules and web modules.
    4. Create projects for all Java utility JARs that contain your code.
    5. Do not create projects for third party libraries.
  2. Import the source code into the IDE.
    1. After the projects are created, you need to populate the workspace with the Java source code. The exact set of Java files to be imported is indicated by the classes in the ImportedClasses folder.
    2. Use the ProjectUtils tool to import Java source code into the correct locations in the projects. You run it from the Eclipse-based IDE by specifying the Eclipse project and location of the source code tree. ProjectUtils searches the source code tree for the classes in the ImportedClasses folder of the project. (See Resources.)

Getting the tool

The Liberty Technology Rule Set is a freely available download.

To install the Liberty Technology Preview:

  1. Download the Liberty Technology Preview.
  2. Start your Eclipse-based IDE.
  3. From the Eclipse menu bar, select Help > Install New Software.
  4. In the Available Software window, click Add.
  5. In the Add Repository popup, enter the following:
    • Name: Enter a name for the tool, for example, Liberty Technology Preview.
    • Location: Enter the location of the downloaded zip file, for example, C:\LibertyMigrationTool\WebSphere_Migration_Toolkit_Liberty_v3.5.3.zip.
  6. In the Available Software window, select Liberty Technology Preview and click Next.
  7. Click Finish to begin the installation.
  8. Restart Eclipse.

To run the Liberty Technology Rule Set against applications:

  1. Run the Liberty Technology Rule Set for analysis in the IDE.
    1. Select the Run > Analysis menu option.
    2. Create a new Software Analyzer configuration:
      • Name: Enter a name for the configuration: for example, Liberty Technology Rules.
      • On the Scope tab, select Analyze entire workspace to scan all projects in the workspace, or Analyze selected projects to scan a selection of projects in the workspace.
      • On the Rules tab, select the Java Technology Support for Other Liberty Editions using the Rule Sets list, and click the Set button.
    3. Click the Analyze button. The tool will analyze the application and generate a list of problems and potential problems in the Software Analyzer Results view.
  2. Review the problems in the Software Analyzer Results view. Make sure to look at the problems in the XML File Review and the Java Code Review tabs. Each of the problems will be classified as to their complexity:
    1. Double click on a problem result to see the line of code that has that problem.
    2. Select F1 from the results view to open the Help tab. After opening help, selecting each result will display the rule-specific help to assist in fixing that problem.
    3. Evaluate the help and the problem to determine the migration suitability and the fix required for the application to run on the Liberty profile.
Figure 2. Code review
Code review

Click to see larger image

Figure 2. Code review

Code review

As Figure 2 shows, the root window has the following panes:

  • Analysis Results, displayed by the Software Analyzer Results View, contains the results of all the rules found during the static analysis.
  • Analysis Type groups the analysis review based on the different resource types that have been analyzed.
  • Help Contents provides basic and detailed help on migration issues.
  • Rule Categories organize the rules based on analysis areas and complexity.
  • Rule Groups the identified migration issues.
  • Rule Result is an instance of a migration issue found in the application.
  • Result Options is the “View Result” option displaying the migration issue on the editor view.

Conclusion

This article presented a new tool that you can use to determine the suitability of your applications for running on the Liberty profile. The tool scans your Java EE application and reports problems in the Software Analyzer view of your Eclipse-based IDE:

  • If the tool does not report any problems then your application uses Java technologies and APIs that are supported by the Liberty profile. These applications are great candidates for moving to Liberty.
  • If the tool reports low complexity problems, that means you can make the fix with little or no code changes. Examples of these kinds of changes are adding alternate JavaMail, JSF, and XSTL implementations to your application’s class path.
  • If the tool reports high complexity problems, that indicates the effort would be more of a re-write than a port. But if there are only a few occurrences of those kinds of problems, or if the impact is contained, then those applications might also be good candidates for running on the Liberty profile.

This article also pointed out that there are a number of existing rule sets in the Migration Toolkit. You can use them to identify problems in deployment descriptors, Java code, and JSPs. After identifying suitable applications for running on the Liberty profile, you should run the Migration Toolkit Rule Sets to discover the rest of the porting issues. Unless your application uses a lot of proprietary APIs or JMX MBeans, they would still be suitable for moving to the Liberty profile.

The subsequent articles in this series will show you how to migrate all of the resources that are required for running the Java EE application on the Liberty profile, and will provide you with instructions for migrating Java EE applications and their resources to the Liberty profile.


Acknowledgements

The authors thank Jarek Gawol, Cindy High, and Alex Mulholland for their valuable input and assistance.

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