In many environments, Secured Socket Layer (SSL) configuration is challenging because of the number of components involved in the configuration and setup. SSL configuration and usage in IBM® WebSphere® MQ is altogether different from SSL usage in WebSphere Message Broker, including differences in terminology. Implementing WebSphere Message Broker SSL requires a good understanding of WebSphere Message Broker nodes for developers, as well as a good understanding of WebSphere Message Broker Infrastructure for infrastructure support teams.
WebSphere Message Broker is a convenient central point for web services brokering and transformation of Web Services Definition Language (WSDL) definitions. A message flow can either be a requester (client) that calls out to a web service, or it can be a service provider that its web service clients invoke. The most commonly nodes used for this purpose are HTTPInput node, HTTPReply node, HTTPRequest node, and the corresponding HTTPS nodes.
This article show you how to implementing SSL on WebSphere Message Broker and configure HTTP to use SSL (HTTPS) communication.
Truststore directory structure
The Trust store cacerts file in a Java keystore (JKS) format is stored in the following default locations on AIX:
- WebSphere Message Broker V6: /opt/IBM/mqsi/610/jre15/ppc64/lib/security
- WebSphere Message Broker V7: /opt/IBM/mqsi/7.0/jre16/lib/security
The keystore file can be stored in any location as long as it is specified in the broker registry, as described below.
SSL configuration steps
As in WebSphere MQ, SSL configuration in WebSphere Message Broker requires a key repository, referred to as a keystore. SSL is used to enhance the security of the WebSphere Message Broker infrastructure. Here are the high-level SSL configuration steps:
- Generate a keystore -- There are several ways to create a keystore
file such as using
gsk7cmd/gsk6cmd, which comes as part of the Global Secure Toolkit (GSK) graphical tool called ikeyman. This article uses a command-line tool called keytool.
- Generate a certificate signing request (CSR) for the existing keystore.
- Import a root or intermediate Certificate Authority (CA) certificate to the existing keystore.
- Import a signed certificate to the existing keystore.
- Validate the certificate details, including:
- List all certificates.
- List a specific certificate.
- List trusted CA certificates.
1. Generate a keystore
keytool -genkey -alias <broker name> -keystore <broker name>.jks -keysize 2048
The keytool command will be in path of the Broker service id. Here, <broker name> indicates the broker instance running on your server; having broker name as alias differentiates between separate entries for every broker.
As a best practice, the keystore file name (keystore.jks) should have <broker name> in it, such as <Broker name>.jks. For simplicity, we will use BROKER1 as the name of the broker. The above command generates the private key along with the keystore file. After you enter the above command, you will be prompted with these questions:
What is your first and last name? [Unknown]: What is the name of your organizational unit? [Unknown]: What is the name of your organization? [Unknown]: What is the name of your City or Locality? [Unknown]: What is the name of your State or Province? [Unknown]: What is the two-letter country code for this unit? [Unknown]:
After you provide answers to the above questions, you will be prompted to
verify that all are correct, as shown below. If all are correct, enter
Is CN=, OU=, O=, L=, ST=, C= correct? (type "yes" or "no") [no]: yes Enter key password for <alias name>: (RETURN if same as keystore password):
A sample entry looks like this,
What is your first and last name? [Unknown]: BROKER1 What is the name of your organizational unit? [Unknown]: ZONE1 What is the name of your organization? [Unknown]: IBM What is the name of your City or Locality? [Unknown]: US What is the name of your State or Province? [Unknown]: Washington What is the two-letter country code for this unit? [Unknown]: US Is CN=BROKER1, OU=ZONE1, O=IBM, L=US, ST=Washington, C=US correct? (type "yes" or "no") [no]: yes Enter key password for <bonca60>: (RETURN if same as keystore password): ******** $
2. Generate a certificate signing request (CSR) for the existing keystore
keytool -certreq -alias BROKER1 -keystore BROKER1.jks -file BROKER1.csr
Here you create a private key. Send the CSR file to the CA team to get the certificates generated. The procedure for passing the CSR to the CA depends on the CA -- the most popular way to transfer the certificate details is via a web link. After you receive the signed certificate (named certificate.der below) from the CA, proceed with the following steps:
3. Import a root or intermediate CA certificate to the existing keystore
keytool -import -trustcacerts -alias root -file Thawte.crt -keystore BROKER1.jks
The keystore file name is BROKER1.jks and the intermediate CA cert is Thawte.crt.
You must import the root and/or the intermediate CA certificates before importing the signed certificate, because the certificates work in sequence. The root certificate must be present in the key file so that the signed certificate has a platform to fit into. The most commonly used CA's are GlobalSign and VeriSign.
4. Import a signed certificate into the existing keystore
keytool -import -trustcacerts -alias BROKER1 -file certificate.der -keystore BROKER1.jks
This certificate is the one that you received from the CA above. The signed certificate file name is certificate.der.
5. Validate the certificate details
To ensure that the above steps have been performed correctly, it is important to do the following validation and verification checks:
List all certificates available in the keystore
keytool -list -keystore BROKER1.jks /home/brkr>keytool -list -keystore BROKER1.jks IBMJSSEProvider2 Build-Level: -20100325 Enter keystore password: Keystore type: jks Keystore provider: IBMJCE Your keystore contains 11 entries verisign class 1 public primary certification authority - g3, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): B1:47:BC:18:57:D1:18:A0:78:2D:EC:71:E8:2A:95:73 verisign class 1 public primary certification authority - g2, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): DB:23:3D:F9:69:FA:4B:B9:95:80:44:73:5E:7D:41:83 verisign class 4 public primary certification authority - g3, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): DB:C8:F2:27:2E:B1:EA:6A:29:23:5D:FE:56:3E:33:DF verisign class 4 public primary certification authority - g2, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): 26:6D:2C:19:98:B6:70:68:38:50:54:19:EC:90:34:60 verisign class 2 public primary certification authority, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): B3:9C:25:B1:C3:2E:32:53:80:15:30:9D:4D:02:77:3E entrust.net global client certification authority, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): 9A:77:19:18:ED:96:CF:DF:1B:B7:0E:F5:8D:B9:88:2E thawte_dv_ssl_ca_3, Oct 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): A5:97:C7:3F:D2:0D:F6:0C:10:D5:4D:31:49:D6:CA:9D verisign class 2 public primary certification authority - g3, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): F8:BE:C4:63:22:C9:A8:46:74:8B:B8:1D:1E:4A:2B:F6 verisign class 2 public primary certification authority - g2, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): 2D:BB:E5:25:D3:D1:65:82:3A:B7:0E:FA:E6:EB:E2:E1 verisign class 3 secure server ca, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): 2A:C8:48:C0:85:F3:27:DE:32:29:44:BB:B0:2C:79:F8 verisign class 3 public primary certification authority, Sep 14, 2011, trustedCertEntry, Certificate fingerprint (MD5): 10:FC:63:5D:F6:26:3E:0D:F3:25:BE:5F:79:CD:67:67
List a specific certificate
keytool -list –v –keystore BROKER1.jks –alias <alias name> /home/brkr>keytool -list -v -keystore BROKER1.jks -alias broker1 IBMJSSEProvider2 Build-Level: -20100325 Enter keystore password: Alias name: broker1 Creation date: Sep 14, 2011 Entry type: keyEntry Certificate chain length: 1 Certificate: Owner: CN=xxxx.xxx.xxxxxxxx.com, OU=Zone1, O=IBM, L=India, ST=Chennai, C=IN Issuer: CN=M-PKI-TER-CA, O=IBM, C=IN Serial number: 13fd3b Valid from: 9/8/11 1:51 PM until: 10/12/12 1:51 PM Certificate fingerprints: MD5: 21:6B:F8:B8:31:3B:CA:5A:6D:92:86:80:B6:24:70:C1 SHA1: DC:88:DA:49:72:4E:53:F5:74:6D:7C:82:A8:18:7C:7F:A3:E1:FA:BD
List trusted CA certificates
This command shows CA authority certificate details:
keytool -list –v -keystore /opt/IBM/mqsi/7.0/jre16/lib/security/cacerts
Configuring Message Broker to serve HTTP/HTTPS requests
In WebSphere Message Broker, HTTPInput, HTTPReply, HTTPRequest, SOAPInput, SOAPReply, SOAPRequest, and SOAPAsyncRequest nodes are used to facilitate HTTP/HTTS requests to and from the web service. For more information on these nodes, see Built-in nodes in the WebSphere Message Broker information center.
As part of broker infrastructure changes, you must tell the broker where to look for keystore and truststore files:
1. List the broker registry
mqsireportproperties BROKER1 -o BrokerRegistry -r BrokerRegistry uuid='BrokerRegistry' brokerKeystoreType='JKS' brokerKeystoreFile=' /home/brkr/BROKER1.jks’ brokerKeystorePass='brokerKeystore::password' brokerTruststoreType='JKS' brokerTruststoreFile=' /opt/IBM/mqsi/7.0/jre16/lib/security/cacerts' brokerTruststorePass='brokerTruststore::password' httpConnectorPortRange='' httpsConnectorPortRange='' modeExtensions='' operationMode='enterprise' shortDesc='' longDesc='' BIP8071I: Successful command completion.
For more information, see mqsireportproperties command in the WebSphere Message Broker information center.
2. Import root certificates and server certificates to the broker truststore
proceed with the following steps:
keytool -import -trustcacerts –alias root.Cert -file /home/brkr/ Thawte.crt -keypass <password> -keystore cacerts –storepass changeit keytool -import -alias BROKER1 -file /home/brkr/certificate.der -keystore cacerts –storepass changeit
The default password of trustore (cacerts) is
3. Enable SSL on the broker instance
This command enables SSL for the HTTP listener object:
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -b httplistener -o HTTPListener -n enableSSLConnector -v true
4. Modify broker properties to point to the keystore file
The keystore file is generated above in Step 1. Generate a keystore.
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -b httplistener -o HTTPSConnector -n keystoreFile -v /home/brkr/BROKER1.jks
5. Add broker keystore file to broker registry
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -o BrokerRegistry -n brokerKeystoreFile -v /home/brkr/BROKER1.jks
6. Add broker truststore file to broker registry
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -o BrokerRegistry -n brokerTruststoreFile -v /opt/IBM/mqsi/7.0/jre16/lib/security/cacerts
7. Set the registry password for keystore
mqsisetdbparms BROKER1 -n brokerTruststore::password -u temp -p changeit
8. Associate the broker with keystore password
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -b httplistener -o HTTPSConnector -n keystorePass -v <password>
9. Associate a port for broker to serve HTTPS requests
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -b httplistener -o HTTPSConnector -n port -v 7094
Now BROKER1 will run on port 7094 for HTTPS requests. Default port for HTTPS requests = 7083
10. Associate a port for broker to serve HTTP requests
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -b httplistener -o HTTPConnector -n port -v 7091
Now BROKER1 will run on Port 7091 for HTTP requests. The default port for HTTP requests is 7080.
11. Change the JVM attributes
You can change JVM heap sizes according to your requirements by modifying
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -o ComIbmJVMManager -n jvmMaxHeapSize -v 1048576000 mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -o ComIbmJVMManager -n jvmMinHeapSize -v 134217728
12. Verify the broker properties
mqsireportproperties BROKER1 -b httplistener -o HTTPConnector -n port 7091 BIP8071I: Successful command completion. mqsireportproperties BROKER1 -b httplistener -o HTTPSConnector -n port 7094 BIP8071I: Successful command completion.
13. Restart the broker
mqsistop <Broker Name> mqsistart <Broker Name> mqsistop BROKER1 mqsistart BROKER1
Setting up ports exclusively for execution groups
To serve SOAP requests, a port needs to be configured at the execution group (EG) level. Each execution group has one listener, one HTTP port, and one HTTPS port. The default SOAP node port numbers are 7800 for HTTP and 7843 for HTTPS. In the example below, <EG Name> stands for execution group name.
1. Configure the SSL protocol
First tell the EG which SSL protocol type are using. SSLv3 is the default SSL protocol.
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o HTTPSConnector -n sslProtocol -v SSLv3
2. Configure the port for SOAP over HTTP requests
Explicitly configure the port for SOAP over HTTP requests.
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 –e <EG Name> -o HTTPSConnector -n explicitlySetPortNumber -v 7963
3. Associate the keystore file with the broker EG
The keystore file created earlier needs to be associated with the broker instance in order for it to know its repository file. To avoid confusion, do not have multiple keystore files on the server.
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o HTTPSConnector -n keystoreFile -v /home/brkr/BROKER1.jks
4. Associate the keystore type.
You should configure the keystore type on the broker, because there are several other keystore types supported by broker. Information on these types is outside the scope of this article, which uses a Java Keystore (JKS).
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o HTTPSConnector -n keystoreType -v JKS
5. Associate the keystore password
Associate the keystore password to the broker so that it can save it in its registry for authentication purpose, which is required when querying the new requests:
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o HTTPSConnector -n keystorePass -v <password>
Setting up JVM attributes for execution groups
When an execution group is started in WebSphere Message Broker, it creates a JVM that is primarily used by the IBM primitive nodes that make use of Java functionality. The DataFlowEngine JVM can be configured either by passing parameters to it directly, or through the broker. When using the broker JVM by any of the means above, the DataFlowEngine memory may continue to grow and may cause resource problems. Use the following few commands to set up your min and max JVM heap size:
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o ComIbmJVMManager -n keystoreFile -v /home/brkr/BROKER1.jks mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o ComIbmJVMManager -n keystoreType -v JKS mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o ComIbmJVMManager -n keystorePass -v brokerKeystore::password mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o ComIbmJVMManager -n truststoreFile -v /home/brkr/BROKER1.jks
In this command, the keystore file type is associated with the ComIbmJVMManager object.
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o ComIbmJVMManager -n truststoreType -v JKS
When querying new requests, associate the keystore password with the broker’s ComIbmJVMManager object so that it can be saved it in its registry for authentication purposes:
mqsichangeproperties BROKER1 -e <EG Name> -o ComIbmJVMManager -n truststorePass -v brokerTruststore::password
In this scenario, the signed certificate supplied by CA is incorrect. This situation is a bit tricky to troubleshoot, but you can use the commands described above with close attention to their output.
We renewed the broker certificate and were able to display the certificate
details on the same server with the correct start and expiration dates. To
reconfirm it, we tried the URL
https://<hostname of UNIX server:><port> on the
corresponding Message Broker server and it correctly displayed the renewed
certificate with start and expiration dates. But applications could not
connect to Message Broker and received certificate validation errors.
Normally, the .der format certificate is imported as part of certificate
renewal. We determined that the .der certificate did not have chained
certificates because the CA team failed to include them. What made us
think the chained certificates were missing? We displayed the complete
list of certificates and compared the environments. What are those chained
certificates? They are the certificates that identify the CA.
/var/mqsi/ssl/BROKER1>keytool -list -v -alias broker1 -keystore BROKER1.jks -storepass <password> Alias name: broker1 Creation date: Dec 9, 2011 Entry type: keyEntry Certificate chain length: 3 Certificate: Owner: CN=servername, OU=ZONE1, O=IBM, L=CN, C=IN Issuer: CN=IBM_PKI_SubCA2, O=IBM, C=IN Serial number: 3142a Valid from: 11/7/11 8:43 AM until: 12/11/12 8:43 AM Certificate fingerprints: MD5: 93:7F:6D:07:72:AA:47:0D:0A:BB:1C:9D:1B:3F:68:F8 SHA1: D2:7E:1B:99:46:DB:88:24:4E:AE:35:B1:DF:D6:40:58:20:91:D1:18 Certificate: Owner: CN=IBM_PKI_SubCA2, O=IBM, C=IN Issuer: CN=IBM_PKI_CA, O=IBM, C=IN Serial number: 2 Valid from: 5/14/03 4:04 AM until: 5/14/13 4:04 AM Certificate fingerprints: MD5: BE:F7:0A:42:D7:C7:A8:40:B6:31:B1:93:E1:1B:6D:D6 SHA1: 77:E1:05:21:74:3E:65:6A:11:DB:3D:BD:D2:34:99:7F:45:93:F8:5A Certificate: Owner: CN=IBM_PKI_CA, O=IBM, C=IN Issuer: CN=IBM_PKI_CA, O=IBM, C=IN Serial number: 0 Valid from: 5/31/02 3:34 AM until: 5/31/32 3:34 AM Certificate fingerprints: MD5: 8E:E6:5E:54:97:0E:DA:E9:12:65:7C:E1:C3:8A:5B:C6 SHA1: B4:C2:C5:17:91:3D:2F:32:10:AB:2D:5A:99:5A:08:5C:10:4F:3E:2B
This article described the standard mechanism for implementing SSL communication in WebSphere Message Broker V6 and V7. It also described common problems in customer environments caused by incorrect certificates provided by the CA.
The author would like to thank the following individuals for their valuable input and feedback:
- Hermann Huebler -- Solutions Specialist and SME, Application Integration and Middleware, IBM India
- Muthukumar Manoharan -- Support Specialist, WebSphere MQ and WebSphere Message Broker Support, IBM India
- Vivek Grover -- Team Lead, WebSphere Message Broker and WebSphere Business Events Level-2 Support, IBM US
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