|System Administration Toolkit: Process administration tricks
Discover how to get the information you want on UNIX(R) processes. Knowing what is running on your UNIX system is one of the most basic requirements of any system administrator. The standard process list is useful, but often the information that it provides is not in the right format or doesn't contain exactly the processes or information you need. In this article, you'll examine how to extend that process further to improve the readability of the information, or provide summaries and information that are not easily obtainable elsewhere. You'll also look at methods for standardizing how to obtain process information across different UNIX platforms.
|Articles||21 Feb 2006|
|Using the GNU Virtual Private Ethernet
Providing a secure communication conduit implies many different issues and problems, such as how you provide an effective communication channel that is capable of handling multiple streams of information. Using the GNU Virtual Private Ethernet (GVPE) provides an alternative to the normal single or multiple channel solutions by effectively emulating the entire network stack and allowing you to build TCP, UDP and other network technologies on top of the virtual environment. This article examines ways of using GVPE with your applications to provide communication, and of using GVPE with your Web sites to provide secure connectivity over private and public networks. In particular, you'll learn about using GVPE with distributed infrastructure projects, such as Amazon EC2, clouds, or public/private web performance deployments.
|Articles||01 Feb 2011|
|Optimizing AIX 7 network performance: Part 3, Monitoring your network packets and tuning the network
This three-part series on AIX 7 networking focuses on the challenges of optimizing network performance. With AIX 7 being used more frequently in network deployment environments, and with common use of workload partitions to help manage resources, you should be aware of all the different applications and environments you need to optimize your network deployment. Part 1 provided a networking overview and also discussed the tools you need to monitor your hardware, including netstat, netpmon, entstat, and nmon. Part 2 discussed monitoring and tuning NFS subsystems. This final segment, Part 3, shows you how to monitor network packets. The series also offers best practices for network I/O performance tuning.
|Articles||11 Jan 2011|
|Optimizing AIX 7 network performance: Part 2, NFS monitoring and tuning
This three-part series on AIX 7 networking focuses on the challenges of optimizing network performance. With AIX 7 being used more frequently in network deployment environments and with common use of workload partitions to help manage your resources, you must be aware of all the different applications and environments you need to optimize your network deployment. Part 2 focuses on tuning NFS. You'll learn about monitoring utilities such as nfsstat and nmon, and you'll also tune with nfso. The series also offers best practices for network I/O performance tuning.
|Articles||30 Nov 2010|
|Optimizing AIX 7 network performance: Part 1, Network overview - Monitoring the hardware
This three-part series on AIX 7 networking focuses on the challenges of optimizing network performance. With AIX 7 and the new POWER7 architecture, you have to think about the performance of your system, and also the effects of your network performance on both LPAR and WPAR environments. In the first installment, you'll review some best practices for network configuration and utilize those practices for efficient monitoring of your hardware by taking advantage of network tools such as netstat, netpmon, entstat, and nmon. You'll also examine certain tools used to look at your interfaces to see how to configure them.
|Articles||23 Nov 2010|
|Optimizing AIX 7 memory performance: Part 2, Monitoring memory usage (ps, sar, svmon, vmstat) and analyzing the results
Use ps, sar, svmon, and vmstat to monitor memory usage and analyze the results. This three-part series focuses on the various aspects of memory management and tuning on IBM System p servers running AIX 7, including taking advantage of the POWER7 CPU to improve memory usage within LPARs. Part 2 of the series focuses on the detail of actual memory subsystem monitoring and discusses how to analyze the results. Throughout the series, we also cover some of the best practices of memory performance tuning and monitoring.
|Articles||09 Nov 2010|
|Optimizing AIX 7 memory performance: Part 1, Memory overview and tuning memory parameters
AIX 7 takes advantage of the POWER7 CPU to improve memory usage within LPARs. While memory tuning might be more difficult to implement than processor or disk tuning, it is no less important. You can do more to tune memory on an AIX 7 server than on any other subsystem. Changing some memory parameters on your system can increase performance dramatically, particularly when these parameters are not optimized for the environment which you are running. This three-part series on memory tuning dives right into tuning parameters focusing on the many challenges and the various best practices of optimizing memory performance, and it also discusses some improvements in AIX 6 and AIX 7. Part 1 provides an overview of memory on AIX 7, including a discussion of virtual memory and the Virtual Memory Manager (VMM).
|Articles||02 Nov 2010|
|Optimizing AIX 7 performance: Part 3, Tune with ioo, filemon, fileplace, JFS and JFS2
Part 3 of the AIX 7 performance series covers how to improve overall file system performance, how to tune your systems with the ioo command, and how to use the filemon and fileplace utilities. You will also learn about JFS and JFS2 that is available in AIX 7.
|Articles||26 Oct 2010|
|Optimizing AIX 7 performance: Part 2, Monitoring logical volumes and analyzing the results
Discover how to use appropriate disk placement prior to creating your logical volumes to improve disk performance. These investigations are based on AIX 7 beta and updating information from the original AIX 5L version of this article. Part 2 of this series focuses on monitoring your logical volumes and the commands and utilities (iostat, lvmstat, lslv, lspv, lsvg) used to analyze results.
|Articles||19 Oct 2010|
|Optimizing AIX 7 performance: Part 1, Disk I/O overview and long-term monitoring tools (sar, nmon, and topas)
Learn more about configuring and monitoring AIX 7 based on the investigations of AIX 7 beta compared to the original articles based on AIX 5L. The article covers the support for direct I/O, concurrent I/O, asynchronous I/O, and best practices for each method of I/O implementation. This three-part series on the AIX disk and I/O subsystem focuses on the challenges of optimizing disk I/O performance. While disk tuning is arguably less exciting than CPU or memory tuning, it is a crucial component in optimizing server performance. In fact, partly because disk I/O is your weakest subsystem link, you can do more to improve disk I/O performance than on any other subsystem.
|Articles||12 Oct 2010|
|Boost network performance with libevent and libev
Building a modern server application requires a method of accepting hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of events simultaneously, whether they are internal requests or network connections effectively handling their operation. There are many solutions available, but the libevent library and libev libraries have both revolutionized the performance and event handling capability. In this article, we will examine the basic structure and methods available for using and deploying these solutions within your UNIX applications. Both libev and libevent can be used in your high performance applications, including those deployed within the IBM Cloud or Amazon EC2 environment, where you need to support large numbers of simultaneous clients or operations.
|Articles||21 Sep 2010|
|UNIX network analysis
You can find out a lot about your network by using a variety of different tools. If you want to understand the layout of your network, where packets are going, and what people are doing, then you need to use a variety of different tools that can help you to build up a picture of your network and what is going on. This tutorial examines techniques for monitoring the traffic and content of your UNIX network and how to read and diagnose problems on your network.
|Tutorial||05 May 2009|
|Solutions for tracing UNIX applications
If you are developing a UNIX application, then you can trace and debug the running application and extract the information you need from it. But what if you want to know what is going on inside a UNIX application and you don't have access to the source code? This tutorial looks at some systems that enable you to trace the execution of applications and work out what they are doing without having to make any modifications to the source code, and even without having to stop and restart the application.
|Tutorial||31 Mar 2009|
|Systems Administration Toolkit: Using SNMP data
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is built in to many devices, but often the tools and software that can read and parse this information are too large and complicated when you only want to check a quick statistic or track a particular device or issue. This article looks at some simplified methods for getting SNMP information from your devices and how to integrate this information into the rest of your network's data map.
|Articles||15 Apr 2008|
|Systems Administration Toolkit: Understanding DNS
The Domain Name System (DNS) is the service that converts hostnames and domain details into the IP addresses required for application to communicate. Under UNIX, the primary DNS service is based on BIND, and DNS itself is a key part of most UNIX installations. This article looks at the basics of DNS setup, how servers and requests are distributed and exchanged, and how to set up and keep a DNS environment running smoothly.
|Articles||04 Mar 2008|
|Systems Administration Toolkit: Log file basics
A typical UNIX or Linux machine creates many log files during the course of its operation. Some of these contain useful information; others can be used to help you with capacity and resource planning. This article looks at the fundamental information recorded within the different log files, their location, and how that information can be used to your benefit to work out what is going on within your system.
|Articles||26 Feb 2008|
|Systems Administration Toolkit: Network scanning
Discover how to scan your network for services and how to regularly monitor your services to keep uptimes to a maximum. A key way of ensuring the security of your network is to know what is on your network and what services individual machines are at risk of exposure. Unauthorized services, such as Web servers or file sharing solutions, not only degrade performance, but others can use these services as routes into your network. In this article, learn how to use these same techniques to ensure that genuine services remain available.
|Articles||04 Dec 2007|
|Systems Administration Toolkit: Monitor user usage
Explore new ways to record UNIX(R) logins and other system activities in a number of different logs, and take advantage of this information to monitor user usage. This can be helpful from a number of perspectives, either to use for chargeback reporting or just to get an idea of how busy and active individual users are on the system to help when planning and allocating resources.
|Articles||23 Oct 2007|
|System Administration Toolkit: Distributed administration using SSH
Use Secure Shell (SSH) to run commands on remote UNIX(R) systems and, with some simple scripts, put together a system that enables you to manage many systems simultaneously from one machine without having to log in directly to the machines themselves. Also examine the basics of a distributed management system and some scripts and solutions using the technique.
|Articles||14 Aug 2007|
|System Administration Toolkit: Build intelligent, unattended scripts
Look at how to create scripts that are able to record their output, trap and identify errors, and recover from errors and problems so that they either run correctly or fail with a suitable error message and report. Building scripts and running them automatically is a task that every good administrator has to handle, but how do you handle the error output and make intelligent decisions about how the script should handle these errors? This article addresses these issues.
|Articles||03 Jul 2007|
|System Administration Toolkit: Set up remote access in UNIX through OpenSSH
Use OpenSSH to provide a secure environment for running a remote terminal. The basics of OpenSSH and terminal usage are quite simple but, in this article, examine additional elements that allow automatic login to remote hosts, methods for running remote applications, and how to securely copy files between hosts.
|Articles||13 Feb 2007|
|System Administration Toolkit: Get the most out of zsh
Examine key parts of the Z shell (zsh) and how to use it's features to ease your UNIX(R) system administration tasks. zsh is a popular alternative to the original Bourne and Korn shells. It provides an impressive range of additional functionality, including improvements for completing different commands, files, and paths automatically, and for binding keys to functions and operations.
|Articles||19 Dec 2006|
|System Administration Toolkit: Get the most out of bash
Ease your system administration tasks by taking advantage of key parts of the Bourne-again shell (bash) and its features. Bash is a popular alternative to the original Bourne and Korn shells. It provides an impressive range of additional functionality that includes improvements to the scripting environment, extensive aliasing techniques, and improved methods for automatically completing different commands, files, and paths.
|Articles||12 Dec 2006|
|System Administration Toolkit: Migrating and moving UNIX directory trees
Occasionally, you need to copy around an entire UNIX(R) directory tree, either between areas on the same system or between different systems. There are many different methods of achieving this, but not all preserve the right amount of information or are compatible across different systems. This article discusses the various options available for UNIX and how best to make them work.
|Articles||25 Jul 2006|
|System Administration Toolkit: Migrating and moving UNIX filesystems
Learn how to transfer an entire file system on a live system, including how to create, copy, and re-enable the new file system. If you have a UNIX(R) disk or system failure or simply fill up your file system, then you need to create a new partition and file system and copy over the contents. You might even need to mount the new partition in place to preserve the location of vital files and components. To add further complications, you need to do this on a live system, where you'd need to preserve file permissions, ownership, and possibly named pipes and other components. Effectively transferring these components and retaining all of this information is a vital part of the migration process.
|Articles||03 Jul 2006|
|System Administration Toolkit: Monitoring disk space and usage
Look at methods for determining disk usage across multiple UNIX(R) systems and how to create a simple warning system to alert you of potential problems. Keeping an eye on your file systems and ensuring they don't fill up is a trivial, but vital, process in the day-to-day management of your UNIX systems. In this article, you'll look at methods for keeping an eye on disk space, discovering which files, users, or applications are using up the most space, and how to make use of quotas and other solutions to find the information you need.
|Articles||13 Jun 2006|
|System Administration Toolkit: Monitoring a slow system
When your UNIX(R) system runs slow, it is vital that you discover what the problem is as quickly as possible so you can get your system back into the normal operating mode. There are many causes for a slow system, but actually identifying the problem can be exceedingly difficult. In this article, study examples of how to identify and diagnose the cause of your slow running UNIX system to get your machine running properly again.
|Articles||07 Jun 2006|
|Write text parsers with yacc and lex
Examine the processes behind building a parser using the lex/flex and yacc/bison tools, first to build a simple calculator and then delve into how you can adopt the same principles for text parsing. Parsing text -- that is, understanding and extracting the key parts of the text -- is an important part of many applications. Within UNIX(R), many elements of the operating system rely on parsing text, from the shell you use to interact with the system, through to common tools and commands like awk or Perl, right through to the C compiler you use to build software and applications.
|Tutorial||31 May 2006|
|System Administration Toolkit: Managing NIS services for authorizations
Examine how to set up, configure, and update a Network Information System (NIS) installation for sharing information, and learn how NIS can be merged with other solutions, such as files and Domain Name System (DNS), to provide subnet, network, and worldwide data sharing facilities. In a large UNIX(R) network, the ability to share information among the many systems helps to alleviate many problems, such as sharing permissions across different systems with Network File System (NFS), or simply providing a single login for the entire network.
|Articles||01 Aug 2006|
|Workload Partitioning (WPAR) in AIX 7.1
The most popular innovation of AIX 6.1 was clearly workload partitioning (WPARs). Once you get past the marketing hype, you'll need to determine the value that WPARs can provide in your environment. What can WPARs do that logical partitions (LPARs) could not? How and when should you use WPARs? Equally as important, when should you not use workload partitioning? Finally, how do you create, configure and administer workload partitions? These are some of the topics that we'll discuss in this article, and we'll look at some of the WPAR enhancements in AIX 7.1.
|Articles||15 Nov 2011|
|Basics of Perl web portals
Perl is a powerful scripting language that can be used to perform small operations from the command line or power a complete web portal. Understanding techniques for making safe and secure Perl CGI scripts is vital to developing a web portal that does not compromise the integrity of a server or the web site's data. This article explains several techniques that will help developers create secure Perl CGI scripts and handle errors, before looking at a simpler method for building web applications like portals using the Plack system.
|Articles||30 Aug 2011|
|Optimizing AIX 7 memory performance: Part 3, Tuning swap space settings
Get an introduction to swap (paging) space, learn how to configure and administer it, capture statistics, and tune your Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) settings to provide for optimum swap (paging) space configuration and performance. With AIX 7, and the improvements for the POWER7 architecture, extracting the best performance out of your memory environment is critical. With the larger memory capacity and CPU cores, a better understanding of the VMM and your configuration will help you change your parameters to fit your requirements.
|Articles||16 Nov 2010|
|Deep-protocol analysis of UNIX networks
Whether you are monitoring your network to identify performance issues, debugging an application, or have found an application on your network that you do not recognize, occasionally you need to look deep into the protocols being used on your UNIX network to understand what they are doing. Some protocols are easy to identify and understand, even when used on non-standard ports. Others need more investigation to understand what they are doing and what information they are exchanging. In this article, we will take a look at techniques for performing detailed analysis of the protocols in use on your UNIX network.
|Articles||08 Jun 2010|
|Adding DTrace probes to your applications
DTrace provides a rich environment of probes that can be used to monitor the execution of your system, from the kernel up to your application. You can perform a significant amount of examination without changing your application, but to get detailed statistics, you need to add probes to your application. In this article, we will examine how to design the probes, where to add them into your application, the best locations for the probes, and how to effectively build and use the probes that you have added.
|Articles||04 May 2010|
|UNIX network performance analysis
Knowing your UNIX network layout will go a long way with understanding your network and how it operates. But what happens when the performance of your UNIX network and the speed at which you can transfer files or connect to services suddenly reduces? How do you diagnose the issues and work out where in your network the problems lie? This article looks at some quick methods for finding and identifying performance issues and the steps to start resolving them.
|Articles||08 Sep 2009|
|Synchronizing UNIX files
There are many tools available that allow you to synchronize files across UNIX directories, but doing it effectively, and securely, takes a little bit more effort. This article looks at solutions for synchronizing files across UNIX filesystems and different computer systems securely, and at solutions that allow you to synchronize encrypted versions of your files for the purposes of backup.
|Articles||03 Feb 2009|
|Develop with Java and PHP technology on AIX Version 5.3, Part 6: Building a PHP Web interface to the Java business application
Set up a PHP Web interface for a Java(TM) business application using the database created in earlier in this series. The PHP Web interface collects information from users and sends the session data to the Java business application for processing and for a response.
|Tutorial||15 Jan 2008|