In this article, learn to shut down or reboot your Linux system, warn users that the system is going down, and switch to single-user mode or a more or less restrictive runlevel or boot target. Learn to:
- Set the default runlevel or boot target
- Change between runlevels or boot targets
- Change to single-user mode
- Shut down or reboot the system from the command line
- Alert users about major system events, including switching to another runlevel or boot target
- Terminate processes properly
Unless otherwise noted, the examples in this article use a Slackware 13.37 system with 2.6.37 kernel. The upstart examples use Ubuntu 14.04 LTS with a 3.16.0 kernel. The systemd examples use Fedora 22 with a 4.0.4 kernel. Your results on other systems may differ.
Most of the time a Linux system runs as a multiuser system, often as a server with many different processes running under several different user ids. Sometimes it has a graphical user interface and serves mostly a single user, while at other times it is a headless server working for many users. When you need to do some kinds of system maintenance you don't want all those users trying to get things done, so you need to be able to run the system with a single user rather than many. You also need to switch to this mode cleanly, giving appropriate warnings to logged-in users. And you need to get back into regular operation as quickly as possible. This article shows you how.
This article helps you prepare for Objective 101.3 in Topic 101 of the Linux Server Professional (LPIC-1) exam 101. The objective has a weight of 3.
To get the most from the articles in this series, you should have a basic knowledge of Linux and a working Linux system on which to practice the commands covered in this article. Sometimes different versions of a program will format output differently, so your results may not always look exactly like the listings and figures shown here. In particular, the newer upstart and systemd systems are changing many things that might be familiar to users of the traditional System V init process (see Beyond Init for details). This article commences with discussion of the traditional System V init process and its runlevels. We then discuss upstart and systemd which are newer initialization processes.
System V runlevels
The traditional System V Runlevels define what tasks can be accomplished in the current state (or runlevel) of a Linux system. Traditional Linux systems support three basic runlevels, plus one or more runlevels for normal operation. The basic runlevels are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Linux basic runlevels
|0||Shut down (or halt) the system|
|1||Single-user mode; usually aliased as s or S|
|6||Reboot the system|
Beyond the basics, runlevel usage differs among distributions. One common usage set is shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Other common Linux runlevels
|2||Multiuser mode without networking|
|3||Multiuser mode with networking|
|5||Multiuser mode with networking and the X Window System|
The Slackware distribution uses runlevel 4 instead of 5 for a full system running the X Window system. Debian and derivatives, such as Ubuntu, use a single runlevel for any multiuser mode, typically runlevel 2. Be sure to consult the documentation for your distribution.
System V default runlevel
When a Linux system starts, the default runlevel is determined from the
id: entry in /etc/inittab. Listing 1 illustrates a piece of the file /etc/inittab
from a Slackware system set to run in non-graphical multiuser mode.
Listing 1. Default runlevel in /etc/inittab
# These are the default runlevels in Slackware: # 0 = halt # 1 = single user mode # 2 = unused (but configured the same as runlevel 3) # 3 = multiuser mode (default Slackware runlevel) # 4 = X11 with KDM/GDM/XDM (session managers) # 5 = unused (but configured the same as runlevel 3) # 6 = reboot # Default runlevel. (Do not set to 0 or 6) id:3:initdefault:
Edit this value if you want your system to start in a different runlevel, say runlevel 4.
There are several ways to change runlevels. To make a permanent change, you can edit /etc/inittab and change the default level that you just saw above.
If you only need to bring the system up in a different runlevel for one boot, you can do this. For example, suppose you just installed a new kernel and need to build some kernel modules after the system booted with the new kernel, but before you start the X Window System. You might want to bring up the system in runlevel 3 to accomplish this. You do this at boot time by editing the kernel line (GRUB or GRUB 2) or adding a parameter after the selected system name (LILO). Use a single digit to specify the desired runlevel (3, in this case). We'll illustrate the process with a GRUB example. Suppose your /boot/grub/menu.lst file contains the stanza shown in Listing 2 to boot CentOS. We've broken the long kernel line for publication using the backslash (\) character.
Listing 2. Typical GRUB stanza to boot CentOS 8
title CentOS (2.6.32-504.23.4.el6.x86_64) root (hd0,10) kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-504.23.4.el6.x86_64 ro \ root=UUID=2f60a3b4-ef6c-4d4c-9ef4-50d7f75124a2 rd_NO_LUKS \ rd_NO_LVM LANG=en_US.UTF-8 rd_NO_MD SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 \ crashkernel=128M KEYBOARDTYPE=pc KEYTABLE=us rd_NO_DM rhgb quiet
To bring this system up in runlevel 3, wait till the boot entries are displayed, select this entry and enter 'e' to edit the entry. Depending on your GRUB options, you may need to press a key to display the boot entries and also enter 'p' and a password to unlock editing. The GRUB screen on our CentOS 6 system looks like Figure 1.
Figure 1. Selecting a boot choice in GRUB
In this example, you should now see the root, kernel, and initrd lines displayed. Move the cursor to the line starting with "kernel" and press 'e' to edit the line. The GRUB screen on our CentOS 6 system now looks like Figure 2.
Figure 2. Selecting the kernel entry for editing
Finally, move the cursor to the end of the line, and add a space and the digit '3'. You may remove 'quiet' if you wish, or modify any other parameters as needed. The GRUB screen on our CentOS 6 system now looks like Figure 3.
Figure 3. Setting the starting runlevel to 3
Finally, press Enter to save the changes, then type 'b' to boot the system.
- The steps for doing this using LILO or GRUB 2 differ from those for GRUB, but the basic principle of editing the way the kernel is started remains. Even GRUB screens on other systems or other distributions may look quite different to those shown here. Prompts will usually be available to help you.
- On systems that use either upstart or systemd, runlevels are simulated
and some things may not work exactly as you might expect. This is
particularly true if you try to change a runlevel by using
Once you have finished your setup work in runlevel 3, you will probably
want to switch to runlevel 5. On a traditional System V init system, you
do not need to reboot the system. You can use the
command to switch to another runlevel. Use the
command to show both the previous runlevel and the current one. If the
first output character is 'N', the runlevel has not been changed since the
system was booted. Listing 3
illustrates verifying and changing the runlevel.
Listing 3. Verifying and changing the runlevel
[root@attic4-cent ~]# runlevel N 3 [root@attic4-cent ~]# telinit 5
After you enter
telinit 5 you will see several messages
flash by and your display will switch to the configured graphical login
screen. Open a terminal window and verify that the runlevel has been
changed as shown in Listing 4.
Listing 4. Confirming the new runlevel
[ian@attic4-cent ~]$ runlevel 3 5
If you use the
ls command to display a long listing of the
telinit command on a system that uses System V init, such as
Slackware 37, you will see that it really is a symbolic link to the
init command. We illustrate this in Listing 5. If your system uses
upstart of systemd this will probably not be the case.
Listing 5. telinit - a symbolic link to init on System V style systems
root@attic4:~# # Slackware 37 root@attic4:~# ls -l $(which telinit) lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 4 Aug 28 2011 /sbin/telinit -> init*
init executable knows whether it was called as
telinit and behaves accordingly. Since
init runs as PID 1 at boot time, it is also smart enough to
know when you subsequently invoke it using
init rather than
telinit. If you do, it will assume you want it to behave as
if you had called
telinit instead. For example, you may use
init 5 instead of
telinit 5 to switch to
In contrast to personal computer operating systems such as DOS or Windows, Linux is inherently a multiuser system. However, there are times when that can be a problem, such as when you need to recover a major filesystem or database, or install and test some new hardware. Runlevel 1, or single-user mode, is your answer for these situations. The actual implementation varies by distribution, but you will usually start in a shell with only a minimal system. Usually there will be no networking and no (or very few) daemons running. On some systems, you must authenticate by logging in, but on others you go straight into a shell prompt as root. Single-user mode can be a lifesaver, but you can also destroy your system, so always be careful whenever you are running with root authority. Reboot to normal multiuser mode as soon as you are done.
As with switching to regular multiuser runlevels, you can also switch to
single-user mode using
telinit 1. As noted in Table 1, 's' and 'S' are aliases for
runlevel 1, so you could, for example, use
While you can use
init to stop
multiuser activity and switch to single-user mode, this can be rather
abrupt and cause users to lose work and processes to terminate abnormally.
The preferred method to shut down or reboot the system is to use the
shutdown command, which first sends a warning message to all
logged-in users and blocks any further logins. It then signals
init to switch runlevels. The
init process then
sends all running processes a SIGTERM signal, giving them a chance to save
data or otherwise properly terminate. After 5 seconds, or another delay if
init sends a SIGKILL signal to forcibly end each
shutdown switches to runlevel 1 (single-user
mode). You may specify the
-h option to halt the system, or
-r option to reboot. A standard message is issued in
addition to any message you specify. The time may be specified as an
absolute time in hh:mm format, or as a relative time, n,
where n is the number of minutes until shutdown. For immediate shutdown,
use now, which is equivalent to +0.
If you have issued a delayed shutdown and the time has not yet expired, you
may cancel the shutdown by pressing Ctrl-c if the command
is running in the foreground, or by issuing
shutdown with the
-c option to cancel a pending shutdown. Listing 6 shows several examples of the
shutdown, along with ways to cancel the command.
Listing 6. Shutdown examples
[root@attic4-cent ~]# shutdown 5 File system recovery needed Broadcast message from ian@attic4-cent (/dev/pts/1) at 18:11 ... The system is going down for maintenance in 5 minutes! File system recovery needed ^Cshutdown: Shutdown cancelled [root@attic4-cent ~]# shutdown -r 10 Reloading updated kernel&  5667 [root@attic4-cent ~]# Broadcast message from ian@attic4-cent (/dev/pts/1) at 18:11 ... The system is going down for reboot in 10 minutes! Reloading updated kernel fg shutdown -r 10 Reloading updated kernel ^Cshutdown: Shutdown cancelled [root@attic4-cent ~]# shutdown -h 23:59&  5669 [root@attic4-cent ~]# Broadcast message from ian@attic4-cent (/dev/pts/1) at 18:11 ... The system is going down for halt in 348 minutes! [root@attic4-cent ~]# shutdown -c shutdown: Shutdown cancelled + Done shutdown -h 23:59
Notice in the last example that our broadcast message came out at 18:11,
but we asked for shutdown at 23:59, some 6.5 hours later. The traditional
System V implementation of shutdown, does not send a warning message if
the shutdown is more than 15 minutes away. Rather it waits till 15 minutes
before the scheduled shutdown then sends the message. Listing 7 shows a System V example on
Slackware 37 and also shows the use of the
-t option to
increase the default delay between SIGTERM and SIGKILL signals from 5
seconds to 60 seconds.
Listing 7. Another shutdown example
root@attic4:~# date;shutdown -t60 17 Time to do backups& Tue Jul 14 18:27:08 EDT 2015  2240 root@attic4:~# Broadcast message from root (tty1) (Tue Jul 14 18:29:08 2015): Time to do backups The system is going DOWN to maintenance mode in 15 minutes!
Notifying users with wall
If you do cancel a shutdown, you should use the
to send a warning to all users alerting them to the fact that the system
is not going down. The
wall command either
takes a warning on the command line or sends a message from a file. A
quick way of sending a multi-line message is to use
echo -e and pipe the output to
illustrate this in Listing 8.
Listing 8. Using wall to warn users
[root@atticf22 ~]# wall Scheduled outage at 23:59 has been canceled Broadcast message from ian@atticf22 (pts/1) (Tue Jul 14 21:07:05 2015): Scheduled outage at 23:59 has been canceled [root@atticf22 ~]# echo -e "We are experiencing system problemsOutage rescheduled to 02:30" | wall Broadcast message from ian@atticf22 (pts/1) (Tue Jul 14 21:07:36 2015): We are experiencing system problems Outage rescheduled to 02:30
As we said earlier, it is also possible to use
init) to shut down or reboot the system. As with other uses
telinit, no warning is sent to users, and the command
takes effect immediately, although there is still a delay between SIGTERM
and SIGKILL signals. For additional options of
shutdown, consult the appropriate man
If you don't want to upset your users with sudden system outages, you need
to notify them using
wall and all other means at your
Halt, reboot, and poweroff
You should know about a few more commands related to shutdown and reboot.
haltcommand halts the system.
poweroffcommand is a symbolic link to the
haltcommand, which halts the system and then attempts to power it off.
rebootcommand is another symbolic link to the
haltcommand, which halts the system and then reboots it.
If any of these are called when the system is not in runlevel 0 or 6, then
shutdown command will be invoked
For additional options that you may use with these commands, as well as more detailed information on their operation, consult the man page.
System V /etc/inittab
By now, you may be wondering why pressing Ctrl-Alt-Delete
on some systems causes a reboot, or how all this runlevel stuff is
configured. Remember the
id field in /etc/inittab that we saw
earlier? Well, there are several other fields in /etc/inittab, along with
a set of init scripts in directories such as rc1.d or rc5.d, where the
digit identifies the runlevel to which the scripts in that directory
apply. Listing 9 shows the full
inittab from our Slackware 37 system.
Listing 9. Full inittab from Slackware 37
# # inittab This file describes how the INIT process should set up # the system in a certain run-level. # # Version: @(#)inittab 2.04 17/05/93 MvS # 2.10 02/10/95 PV # 3.00 02/06/1999 PV # 4.00 04/10/2002 PV # 13.37 2011-03-25 PJV # # Author: Miquel van Smoorenburg, <firstname.lastname@example.org> # Modified by: Patrick J. Volkerding, <email@example.com> # # These are the default runlevels in Slackware: # 0 = halt # 1 = single user mode # 2 = unused (but configured the same as runlevel 3) # 3 = multiuser mode (default Slackware runlevel) # 4 = X11 with KDM/GDM/XDM (session managers) # 5 = unused (but configured the same as runlevel 3) # 6 = reboot # Default runlevel. (Do not set to 0 or 6) id:3:initdefault: # System initialization (runs when system boots). si:S:sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc.S # Script to run when going single user (runlevel 1). su:1S:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc.K # Script to run when going multi user. rc:2345:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc.M # What to do at the "Three Finger Salute". ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t5 -r now # Runlevel 0 halts the system. l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc.0 # Runlevel 6 reboots the system. l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc.6 # What to do when power fails. pf::powerfail:/sbin/genpowerfail start # If power is back, cancel the running shutdown. pg::powerokwait:/sbin/genpowerfail stop # These are the standard console login getties in multiuser mode: c1:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty 38400 tty1 linux c2:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty 38400 tty2 linux c3:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty 38400 tty3 linux c4:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty 38400 tty4 linux c5:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty 38400 tty5 linux c6:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty 38400 tty6 linux # Local serial lines: #s1:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L ttyS0 9600 vt100 #s2:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L ttyS1 9600 vt100 # Dialup lines: #d1:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -mt60 38400,19200,9600,2400,1200 ttyS0 vt100 #d2:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -mt60 38400,19200,9600,2400,1200 ttyS1 vt100 # Runlevel 4 also starts /etc/rc.d/rc.4 to run a display manager for X. # Display managers are preferred in this order: gdm, kdm, xdm x1:4:respawn:/etc/rc.d/rc.4 # End of /etc/inittab
As usual, lines starting with # are comments. Other lines have several
fields with the following
- is a unique identifier of one to four characters. Older versions limited this to two characters, so you may see only two characters used.
- lists the runlevels for which the action for this id should be taken. If no runlevels are listed, do the action for all runlevels.
- describes which of several possible actions should be taken.
- tells which process, if any, should be run when the action on this line is performed.
Some of the common actions that may be specified in /etc/inittab are shown in Table 3. See the man pages for inittab for other possibilities.
Table 3. Some common inittab actions
|respawn||Restart the process whenever it terminates. Usually used for getty processes, which monitor for logins.|
|wait||Start the process once when the specified runlevel is entered and wait for its termination before init proceeds.|
|once||Start the process once when the specified runlevel is entered.|
|initdefault||Specifies the runlevel to enter after system boot.|
|ctrlaltdel||Execute the associated process when init receives the SIGINT signal, for example, when someone on the system console presses CTRL-ALT-DEL.|
Listing 10 shows just the entry for Ctrl-Alt-Delete from Listing 9. So now you see why pressing Ctrl-Alt-Delete causes the system to be rebooted.
Listing 10. Trapping Ctrl-Alt-Delete
# What to do at the "Three Finger Salute". ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t5 -r now
System V Initialization scripts
You may have noticed several lines in Listing 9, such as:
# Script to run when going multi user. rc:2345:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc.M
In this example,
init will run the
script (or command) whenever runlevel 2,3,4, or 5 are entered.
init will wait until this command completes before doing
These scripts used by
init when starting the system, changing
runlevels, or shutting down are typically stored in the /etc/init.d or
/etc/rc.d directory. A series of symbolic links in the rcn.d
directories, one directory for each runlevel n, usually control
whether a script is started when entering a runlevel or stopped when
leaving it. These links start with either a K or an S, followed by a
two-digit number and then the name of the service. Some examples from an
older system are shown in Listing 11.
Listing 11. Init scripts
[root@pinguino ~]# find /etc -path "*rc[0-9]*.d/???au*" /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/S27auditd /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/K72autofs /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/S27auditd /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/S28autofs /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S27auditd /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S28autofs /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K72autofs /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K73auditd /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K72autofs /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K73auditd /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K72autofs /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K73auditd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S27auditd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S28autofs [root@pinguino ~]# cd /etc/rc.d/rc5.d [root@pinguino rc5.d]# ls -l ???a* lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 16 2008-04-07 11:29 S27auditd -> ../init.d/auditd lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 16 2008-04-01 07:51 S28autofs -> ../init.d/autofs lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 2008-04-01 14:03 S44acpid -> ../init.d/acpid lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 13 2008-04-01 07:50 S95atd -> ../init.d/atd lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 2008-04-01 07:54 S96avahi-daemon -> ../init.d/avahi-daemon lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 17 2008-11-17 13:40 S99anacron -> ../init.d/anacron
Here you see that the
have Knn entries in all runlevels and Snn entries for
both in runlevels 3 and 5. The S indicates that the service is started
when that runlevel is entered, while the K entry indicates that it should
be stopped. The nn component of the link name indicates the
priority order in which the service should be started or stopped. In this
audit is started before
autofs, and it
is stopped later. Since the K and S links usually link to the same script,
the script knows whether it is entering or leaving a level by examining
the link name by which it was called.
However, Slackware uses a slightly different approach. as shown in Listing 12. Notice that the /etc/rc[0-9].d directories are all empty. Entering a particular runlevel is controlled by a script such as the script to go multiuser, /etc/rc.d/rc.M which is used when entering run levels 2, 3, 4, or 5.
Listing 12. Slackware 37 Init scripts
root@attic4:~# find /etc/rc[0-9].* /etc/rc0.d /etc/rc1.d /etc/rc2.d /etc/rc3.d /etc/rc4.d /etc/rc5.d /etc/rc6.d root@attic4:~# ls /etc/rc.*/???a* /etc/rc.d/rc.acpid* /etc/rc.d/rc.atalk /etc/rc.d/rc.alsa* /etc/rc.d/rc.autofs
Compare the /etc/rc.d/rc.autofs script with the /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/K72autofs and /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/S28autofs symbolic links pointing to /etc/init.d/autofs in the previous example.
inittab man pages for more
As we have seen here, the traditional method of booting a Linux system is
based on the UNIX System V init process. It involves loading an initial
RAM disk (initrd) and then passing control to a program called
init, a program that is usually installed as part of the
sysvinit package. The
init program is the first process in
the system and has PID (Process ID) 1. It runs a series of scripts in a
predefined order to bring up the system. If something that is expected is
not available, the init process typically waits until it is. While this
worked adequately for systems where everything is known and connected when
the system starts, modern systems with hot-pluggable devices, network file
systems, and even network interfaces that may not be available at start
time present new challenges. Certainly, waiting for hardware that may not
come available for a long time, or even just a relatively long time, is
In the following sections of this article we will describe two alternatives to System V init, upstart and systemd.
If you are not sure what system initialization you have, remember that the first process started on your system has Process Id (PID) 1. Find out which program is running as PID1. If it's called "init" then figure out which package provides it. Listing 13 shows how to do this on several systems.
Listing 13. Finding the package that provides init
[ian@atticf22 lpic-1]$ # Fedora 22 [ian@atticf22 lpic-1]$ ps -p 1 -o comm= systemd [ian@atticf22 lpic-1]$ # Ah! It's systemd ian@attic4:~$ # Slackware 37 ian@attic4:~$ ps -p 1 -o comm= init ian@attic4:~$ grep sbin/init /var/log/packages/* /var/log/packages/sysvinit-2.86-x86_64-6:sbin/init.new /var/log/packages/sysvinit-2.86-x86_64-6:sbin/initscript.sample /var/log/packages/sysvinit-functions-8.53-x86_64-2:sbin/initlog ian@attic4:~$ # System V style init ian@attic-u14:~$ # Ubuntu 14 ian@attic-u14:~$ ps -p 1 -o comm= init ian@attic-u14:~$ dpkg -S `which init` upstart: /sbin/init ian@attic-u14:~$ # Upstart ian@yoga-u15:~$ # Ubuntu 15.04 ian@yoga-u15:~$ ps -p 1 -o comm= systemd ian@yoga-u15:~$ # Ubuntu has switched from upstart to systemd [ian@attic4-cent ~]$ # CentOS 6 [ian@attic4-cent ~]$ ps -p 1 -o comm= init [ian@attic4-cent ~]$ rpm -q --whatprovides `which init` upstart-0.6.5-13.el6_5.3.x86_64 [ian@attic4-cent ~]$ # Another upstart system
With both upstart and systemd, vestiges of System V Init remain,
particularly /etc/fstab and a skeletal /etc/inittab. The concept of
runlevel is not directly supported. System V commands such as
telinit are supported, but their function is mapped
internally into activation and deactivation of upstart jobs or systemd
units. Needless to say, the mapping may sometimes be less than perfect, so
if you boot into runlevel 3 and then use telinit to switch to runlevel 5,
your system may or may not work exactly as it would had you rebooted. The
"SysVinit to Systemd Cheatsheet" (see Resources)
can help you map the concepts and commands from System V init to
A new initialization process called upstart was first introduced in Ubuntu 6.10 ("Edgy Eft") in 2006. Fedora 9 through 14 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 6 use upstart, as do distributions derived from these. Upstart has now supplanted the init process in Ubuntu among others, although vestiges of init remain and the full power of upstart may not be realized for some time yet.
In contrast to the static set of init scripts used in earlier systems, the upstart system is driven by events. Events may be triggered by hardware changes, starting or stopping or tasks, or by any other process on the system. Events are used to trigger tasks or services, collectively known as jobs. So, for example, connecting a USB drive might cause the udev service to send a block-device-added event, which would cause a defined task to check /etc/fstab and mount the drive if appropriate. As another example, an Apache web server may be started only when both a network and required filesystem resources are available.
The upstart initialization program replaces /sbin/init. Upstart jobs are defined in the /etc/init directory and its subdirectories. The upstart system will currently process /etc/inittab and System V init scripts. On systems such as recent Fedora releases, /etc/inittab is likely to contain only the id entry for the initdefault action. Recent Ubuntu systems do not have /etc/inittab by default, although you can create one if you want to specify a default runlevel.
Upstart also has the initctl command to allow interaction with the upstart
init daemon. This allows you to start or stop jobs, list jobs, get status
of jobs, emit events, restart the init process, and so on. Listing 14 shows how to use
initctl to obtain a list of upstart jobs on a Fedora 13
Listing 14. Interacting with upstart init daemon using initctl
ian@attic-u14:~/data/lpic-1$ # Ubuntu 14 ian@attic-u14:~/data/lpic-1$ initctl list gnome-keyring-gpg stop/waiting indicator-application start/running, process 1935 unicast-local-avahi stop/waiting update-notifier-crash stop/waiting update-notifier-hp-firmware stop/waiting xsession-init stop/waiting dbus start/running, process 1734 update-notifier-cds stop/waiting gnome-keyring-ssh stop/waiting gnome-session (Unity) start/running, process 1802 ssh-agent stop/waiting unity7 stop/waiting unity-voice-service stop/waiting upstart-dbus-session-bridge start/running, process 1837 indicator-messages start/running, process 1884 logrotate stop/waiting indicator-bluetooth start/running, process 1885 unity-panel-service start/running, process 1835 hud start/running, process 1798 im-config start/running unity-gtk-module stop/waiting session-migration stop/waiting upstart-dbus-system-bridge start/running, process 1789 at-spi2-registryd start/running, process 1801 indicator-power start/running, process 1889 update-notifier-release stop/waiting indicator-datetime start/running, process 1891 unity-settings-daemon start/running, process 1794 indicator-sound start/running, process 1894 upstart-file-bridge start/running, process 1790 gnome-keyring stop/waiting window-stack-bridge start/running, process 1754 indicator-printers start/running, process 1902 re-exec stop/waiting upstart-event-bridge start/running, process 1745 unity-panel-service-lockscreen stop/waiting indicator-session start/running, process 1918
To learn more about upstart, see Resources.
Another new initialization system called systemd is also emerging. Systemd was developed by Lennart Poettering in early 2010. He described the rationale and design in a blog post (see Resources. Early adopters were Fedora 15, openSUSE 12.1 and Mandriva 2011 among others. With release 15.04 Ubuntu has switched from upstart to systemd.
Many daemon processes communicate using sockets. In order to gain speed and enhance parallelism in the system startup, systemd creates these sockets at startup, but only starts the associated task when a connection request for services on that socket is received. In this way, services can be started only when they are first required and not necessarily at system initialization. Services that need some other facility will block until it is available, so only those services that are waiting for some other process need block while that process starts.
Extending the idea of waiting for services systemd uses autofs to define mount points, so the mount point for a file system is available, but the actual mount may be delayed until some process attempts to open a file on the file system or otherwise use it.
These ideas not only delay startup of services until needed, they also reduce the need for dependency checking between services, as the interface for the service can be ready long before the service itself needs to be available.
Like upstart, systemd can process existing initialization from /etc/inittab. It can also process /etc/fstab to control file system mounting. Native systemd initialization revolves around the concept of units, which can be grouped into control groups or cgroups. Among the several types of units, you may find the following:
- Service units are daemons that can be started, stopped, restarted, reloaded.
- Socket units encapsulate a socket in the file-system or on the Internet.
- Device units encapsulate a device in the Linux device tree.
- Mount units encapsulate a mount point in the file system hierarchy.
- Automount units encapsulate an automount point in the file system hierarchy.
- Target units group other units together, providing a single control unit for multiple other units.
- Snapshot units reference other units and can be used to save and roll back the state of all services and units of the init system (for example, during suspend).
Units are configured using a configuration file, which includes the unit
type as a suffix. For example, cups.service, rpcbind.socket or
getty.target. The location of system configuration files (for example,
/etc/systemd/system) can be determined by using the
pkg-config command as shown in Listing 14, which shows the location on a Fedora 17
system. Systemd also checks /usr/local/lib/systemd/system and
/usr/lib/systemd/system for configuration information.
Listing 15. Locating the systemd system configuration directory
[ian@atticf22 ~]$ pkg-config systemd --variable=systemdsystemconfdir /etc/systemd/system
systemctl command allows you to interrogate and control
the systemd daemon, including starting and stopping units or listing their
status. Listing 16 illustrates the
systemctl to display the status of some of the systemd
units on my Fedora 22 system.
Listing 16. Partial output from systemctl
[ian@atticf22 ~]$ systemctl --no-pager UNIT LOAD ACTIVE SUB DESCRIPTION proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount loaded active running Arbitrary Executable File Form sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:02.0-0000:01:00.1-sound-card1.device loaded active plugged GF119 HDMI Audio Controller sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:06.0-0000:03:00.0-net-enp3s0.device loaded active plugged RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:11.0-ata1-host0-target0:0:0-0:0:0:0-block-sda-sda1.device loaded active plugged WDC_WD6401AALS-00L3B2 /grubfil ... sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:11.0-ata1-host0-target0:0:0-0:0:0:0-block-sda-sda9.device loaded active plugged WDC_WD6401AALS-00L3B2 9 sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:11.0-ata1-host0-target0:0:0-0:0:0:0-block-sda.device loaded active plugged WDC_WD6401AALS-00L3B2 ... sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:12.2-usb1-1\x2d6-1\x2d6:1.2-sound-card2.device loaded active plugged Webcam C310 sys-devices-pci0000:00-0000:00:14.1-ata6-host5-target5:0:0-5:0:0:0-block-sr0.device loaded active plugged Optiarc_DVD_RW_AD-7240S ... sys-module-configfs.device loaded active plugged /sys/module/configfs sys-module-fuse.device loaded active plugged /sys/module/fuse ... sys-subsystem-net-devices-enp3s0.device loaded active plugged RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express sys-subsystem-net-devices-virbr0.device loaded active plugged /sys/subsystem/net/devices/vir sys-subsystem-net-devices-virbr0\x2dnic.device loaded active plugged /sys/subsystem/net/devices/vir -.mount loaded active mounted / ... cups.path loaded active waiting CUPS Scheduler systemd-ask-password-plymouth.path loaded active waiting Forward Password Requests to P systemd-ask-password-wall.path loaded active waiting Forward Password Requests to W session-1.scope loaded active abandoned Session 1 of user ian session-2.scope loaded active running Session 2 of user ian session-c1.scope loaded active running Session c1 of user gdm ... crond.service loaded active running Command Scheduler cups.service loaded active running CUPS Scheduler dbus.service loaded active running D-Bus System Message Bus dracut-shutdown.service loaded active exited Restore /run/initramfs on shut fedora-import-state.service loaded active exited Import network configuration f fedora-readonly.service loaded active exited Configure read-only root suppo ... ● mcelog.service loaded failed failed Machine Check Exception Loggin NetworkManager.service loaded active running Network Manager nfs-config.service loaded active exited Preprocess NFS configuration packagekit.service loaded active running PackageKit Daemon ... cups.socket loaded active running CUPS Scheduler dbus.socket loaded active running D-Bus System Message Bus Socke dm-event.socket loaded active listening Device-mapper event daemon FIF ... sockets.target loaded active active Sockets sound.target loaded active active Sound Card swap.target loaded active active Swap sysinit.target loaded active active System Initialization timers.target loaded active active Timers dnf-makecache.timer loaded active waiting dnf makecache timer systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer loaded active waiting Daily Cleanup of Temporary Dir LOAD = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded. ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB. SUB = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type. 164 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too. To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.
The last part of the unit name (such as device, path, target) is the unit type.
systemctl command allows you to interrogate and control
the system units. We show a few examples in Listing 17 where we first interrogate the SSH server daemon (sshd.service). Then
we stop it and check the status again. Finally, we start it again.
Listing 17. Some systemctl actions
[root@atticf22 ~]# # Fedora 22 [[root@atticf22 ~]# systemctl status sshd.service ● sshd.service - OpenSSH server daemon Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sshd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled) Active: active (running) since Wed 2015-07-15 10:24:03 EDT; 5h 42min ago Docs: man:sshd(8) man:sshd_config(5) Main PID: 765 (sshd) CGroup: /system.slice/sshd.service └─765 /usr/sbin/sshd -D Jul 15 10:24:03 atticf20 systemd: Started OpenSSH server daemon. Jul 15 10:24:03 atticf20 systemd: Starting OpenSSH server daemon... Jul 15 10:24:03 atticf20 sshd: Server listening on 0.0.0.0 port 22. Jul 15 10:24:03 atticf20 sshd: Server listening on :: port 22. [root@atticf22 ~]# systemctl stop sshd.service [root@atticf22 ~]# systemctl status sshd.service ● sshd.service - OpenSSH server daemon Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sshd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled) Active: inactive (dead) since Wed 2015-07-15 16:06:28 EDT; 3s ago Docs: man:sshd(8) man:sshd_config(5) Process: 765 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/sshd -D $OPTIONS (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 765 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Jul 15 10:24:03 atticf20 systemd: Started OpenSSH server daemon. Jul 15 10:24:03 atticf20 systemd: Starting OpenSSH server daemon... Jul 15 10:24:03 atticf20 sshd: Server listening on 0.0.0.0 port 22. Jul 15 10:24:03 atticf20 sshd: Server listening on :: port 22. Jul 15 16:06:28 atticf22 systemd: Stopping OpenSSH server daemon... Jul 15 16:06:28 atticf22 systemd: Stopped OpenSSH server daemon. [root@atticf22 ~]# systemctl start sshd.service
To learn more about systemd, see Resources.
This completes your introduction to Linux runlevels, shutdown, and reboot.
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