If you're familiar with disk structure, you know that disks are broken down into sectors, which are typically 512 bytes in size; all Read or Write operations occur in multiples of the sector size. When you look more closely, hard disks include extra data between sectors. The disk uses these extra bytes to detect and correct errors within each sector.
When the sector size is increased from 512 bytes to a larger value, more efficient and powerful error-correction algorithms can be used. Thus, changing to a larger sector size has two practical benefits: improved reliability and greater disk capacity — at least in theory.
Advanced Format disks translate each 4,096-byte physical sector into eight 512-byte logical sectors. To the firmware, operating system, and all disk utilities, the disk appears to have 512-byte sectors, even though the underlying physical sector size is 4,096 bytes. However, changing the apparent sector size in firmware can degrade performance. To understand why, you need to understand something about file system data structures and how partitions are placed on the hard disk.
Why performance is affected by file system data structures
Most modern file systems use data structures that are 4,096 bytes or larger. Thus, most disk I/O operations are in multiples of this amount. Consider what happens when Linux wants to read or write one of these data structures on a new disk with 4,096-byte sectors. If the file system data structures happen to align perfectly with the underlying physical sector size, a Read or Write of a 4,096-byte data structure results in a Read or Write of a single sector. The hard disk's firmware doesn't need to do anything extraordinary, but when the file system data structures don't align perfectly with the underlying physical sectors, a Read or Write operation must access two physical sectors. Figure 1 illustrates this difference:
Figure 1. Disk data structures can straddle physical sectors on an Advanced Format disk
In theory, Read operations should be affected by misalignment less than Write operations. In the case of a disk read, the disk's read/write head is likely to pass over both sectors in quick succession, so the firmware's task of returning the 4 kibibyte (KiB) data structure is relatively simple. In contrast, writes of misaligned data structures require the disk's firmware to read two sectors, modify portions of both sectors, and then write two sectors. This operation takes longer than when the 4,096 bytes occupy a single sector. Thus, performance is degraded. In practice, Read operations can sometimes be affected as badly as Write operations.
How can you tell if your data structures are properly aligned? Most file systems align their data structures to the beginning of the partitions that contain them. Thus, if a partition begins on a 4,096-byte (eight-sector) boundary, it's properly aligned. However, in the years before 2010 (approximately), Linux partitioning tools didn't create partitions aligned in this way. Even today, some pitfalls remain, so exercise caution when you create your partitions. (To see how to do the job with common Linux partitioning software, go to the upcoming section, Aligning partitions.)
To learn just how important proper alignment is, I performed tests using three Advanced Format disks on three computers:
- A 1TB Western Digital WD-10EARS Advanced Format drive — one of the first Advanced Format disks introduced (late 2009) on a computer using an NVIDIA MCP61P chip set and a 64-bit 22.214.171.124 kernel. The results from this test appeared in the first version of this article, published in 2010.
- A 2TB Seagate ST2000L003 drive, purchased in 2012, in a computer with a more recent AMD 760G/SB710 chipset and a 64-bit 3.4.1 kernel.
- A 3TB Toshiba DT01ACA300 drive, purchased in late 2013, in a computer with an Intel® H77 chipset and a 64-bit 3.11.7 kernel.
In all three tests, I partitioned the disk using the globally unique identifier (GUID) Partition Table (GPT) system, with the aligned partitions beginning at logical sector 40 and the unaligned partitions beginning at logical sector 34 (the first available sector when using a GPT disk with its default partition table size). File systems tested were the third extended file system (ext3), the fourth extended file system (ext4), ReiserFS (version 3), the Journaled File System (JFS), the Extents File System (XFS), and the B-tree file system (Btrfs).
In all tests, a script performed a series of disk I/O operations, including creating a fresh file system, extracting an uncompressed Linux kernel tarball to the test drive, copying the tarball to the drive, reading the just-uncompressed files on the test drive, reading the tarball from the drive, and removing the Linux kernel directory. The source Linux kernel tarball was stored on another disk, and for read tests, output was directed to /dev/null. After each write test, the test disk was unmounted as a way of ensuring that no operations remained in the Linux disk cache. Figures reported include the time required to perform the Unmount operation.
The kernel tarball was 365 mebibytes (MiB) in size for the first test and 451MiB for the second and third tests. All disks had 64MiB caches, so the tarball greatly exceeded the disk's cache size in both tests. I ran each test sequence six times for each file system, three times on properly aligned and three times on improperly aligned partitions. Between-run variability was small. The average unaligned time was divided by the average aligned time to determine how much of a performance hit improper alignment imposed. A value above 1.00 indicates some performance penalty for improper alignment.
All disks showed impairment for misaligned partitions, with the 2009 Western Digital disk and the 2013 Toshiba disk showing a similar pattern and the 2012 Seagate model displaying a different pattern. Therefore, I describe these results in two groups for each pattern of results.
Western Digital and Toshiba test results
Many of the tests that were run in 2010 on the Western Digital disk produced modest impairment. The values for file system creation ranged from 0.96 (for XFS) to 7.94 (for ReiserFS), with a mean value of 2.79. On the 2013 Toshiba tests, file system creation values ranged from 1.22 (for ext4) to 1.82 (for both ext3 and XFS), with a mean of 1.57. Because file system creation typically is done only rarely, this impairment is not important. The Western Digital read tests produced ratios ranging from 0.95 to 1.25, indicating no more than a 25% speed penalty, as detailed in Figure 2. A value of 1.00 means no penalty; higher values mean worse performance. The Toshiba values range from 0.94 to 1.11, as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 2. Read performance penalty for using unaligned partitions on a Western Digital WD-10EARS disk
Figure 3. Read performance penalty for using unaligned partitions on a Toshiba DT01ACA300 disk
Large-file write performance also suffered only modest impairment. On the Western Digital disk, these values ranged from 1.10 (for XFS and JFS) to 6.02 (for ReiserFS), with a mean of 2.10; on the Toshiba, they ranged from 1.03 (for ext4) to 2.38 (for ReiserFS), with a mean of 1.34. Much of that elevation is attributable to ReiserFS's sensitivity. Removing it produced means of 1.31 and 1.13 for the remaining five file systems on the Western Digital and Toshiba drives, respectively. File deletion effects were similar. On the Western Digital drive, these ranged from 1.04 (for XFS) to 4.78 (for JFS), with a mean of 1.97; on the Toshiba, the range was from 1.05 (for ext4) to 1.59 (for JFS), with a mean of 1.30.
The biggest write performance effects occurred with small file creation (extracting the kernel tarball). On the Western Digital, effects on tarball extraction ranged from 1.04 (for ext4) to 25.53 (for ReiserFS), with a mean of 10.9. The second-best performer in this test was XFS, with a value of 1.82. On the Toshiba, the effects ranged from 1.44 (for Btrfs) to 3.17 (for ReiserFS), with a mean of 1.92. Because these figures are ratios of unaligned-to-aligned performance, a value of 10.9 means that a tarball extraction that takes 10 seconds on a properly aligned partition takes 109 seconds on an improperly aligned partition—a huge difference!
Figure 4 summarizes these write performance impairments across all file systems for the Western Digital disk, and Figure 5 does the same for the Toshiba disk. As before, a value of 1.00 means no penalty; higher values mean worse performance.
Figure 4. Write performance penalty for using unaligned partitions on a Western Digital WD-10EARS disk
Figure 5. Write performance penalty for using unaligned partitions on a Toshiba DT01ACA300 disk
Seagate test results
Tests on the Seagate ST2000L003 disk produced surprisingly different results. The file system creation penalties ranged from 1.09 (for ReiserFS) to 1.97 (for JFS), with a mean of 1.42, which is similar to the Toshiba results.
The surprises begin with the read access results, shown in Figure 6. Read performance suffered significantly more on the Seagate than on the Western Digital or Toshiba drives, ranging as high as 8.54 for small-file reads under JFS, with a mean value of 4.13. Even large-file read performance suffered, with a mean value of 1.88 and a high of 3.76 (for ReiserFS).
Figure 6. Read performance penalty for using unaligned partitions on a Seagate ST2000L003 disk
The Seagate disk's write penalties are shown in Figure 7. Small-file creation penalties ranged from 1.23 (for Btrfs) to 3.04 (for ext3), with a mean of 1.98. Large-file creation penalties ranged from 1.04 (for Btrfs) to 3.87 (for ReiserFS), with a mean of 1.78. For most file systems, the greatest penalty was in file deletions, which ranged from 1.23 (for Btrfs) to 7.75 (for ext4), with a mean of 4.14.
Figure 7. Write performance penalty for using unaligned partitions on a Seagate ST2000L003 disk
Analysis of test results
The difference in the pattern of results among the three hard disks is surprising. Because I conducted these tests over almost four years, the variables (disk brand and model, nondisk hardware, and Linux kernel version) make it impossible to say precisely what caused these differences. I caution against concluding anything about specific disk brands; in particular, the lesser impairment of the Toshiba compared to the Western Digital disk may be a result of improved kernel features or motherboard disk hardware. Ultimately, though, the different pattern of results is unimportant for most people, because the conclusion is the same: Using unaligned partitions produces significant performance impairment.
Note: these tests do not reflect overall performance across file systems. You should not conclude, for instance, that ReiserFS is a poor performer because it produced some of the largest performance differences. ReiserFS is, however, more sensitive than most others to improper alignment, at least in certain important tests.
If you use a logical volume manager (LVM), be aware that the alignment rules for LVMs are the same as for partitions. Although you needn't be concerned about the alignment of logical volumes within LVMs, you should attend to the alignment of the LVM partitions themselves. A spot check of a few file systems using LVMs replicated the preceding results.
As a practical matter, what does all this mean? You should begin by determining the physical sector size of your disk. If you find that you've got an Advanced Format drive, you should align your partitions properly.
Determining physical sector size
In theory, the Linux kernel should return information on the physical sector size in the /sys/block/sdX/queue/physical_block_size pseudo-file and on the logical sector size in the /sys/block/sdX/queue/logical_block_size pseudo-file, where sdX is your device's node name (typically, sda, sdb, and so on). In practice, however, the physical block size information is often spurious — in my experience, the kernel reports accurate information only for some disks, and the accuracy of the report also varies with the kernel version. This means that disk utilities can't reliably detect the presence of such disks.
So you may need to look up your drive's specifications on the manufacturer's website or in other ways. The /sys/block/sdX/device/model pseudo-file holds the device's model number, so you can look there, and then check with the manufacturer. If in doubt, assume that your disk is an Advanced Format model — most new disks are.
Western Digital and Toshiba both identify their Advanced Format drives as such with stickers on the drives themselves. However, the Western Digital stickers imply that only Windows XP has problems with these drives, and Toshiba's Advanced Format identification doesn't note any possible performance issues. As my benchmark results reveal, Linux users must exercise extreme caution with these drives. The Seagate Advanced Format drives are not clearly identified as such on their labels.
Most or all of the Western Digital Advanced Format drives include a jumper you can set for Windows XP compatibility. This jumper shifts the sector numbering by 1, a quick and dirty fix for the common situation in Windows XP of using a single cylinder-aligned partition that spans the entire drive. However, this jumper creates problems if you use multiple partitions or if you use modern partitioning software, so I strongly recommend against trying it. Instead, use your Linux partitioning software to create properly aligned partitions. (Neither Seagate nor Toshiba provides such a jumper on its drives.)
Three families of master boot record (MBR) and GPT partitioning tools are available for Linux, and each offers its own method of aligning partitions. If you have an Advanced Format drive, your best option is to run the latest Linux partitioning software available.
The fdisk family
The fdisk family, which ships as part of the util-linux or util-linux-ng package on most distributions, enables fairly direct editing of MBR data structures, but it can't create or modify file systems. Through util-linux version 2.17, fdisk didn't offer any direct support for eight-sector alignment of partitions; alignment remained cylinder-based. This changed with version 2.18, when fdisk began setting the first partition's start point at sector 2,048 by default. If you create all your partitions in fdisk using partition sizes that are multiples of 1MiB or larger, fdisk maintains your partition alignment on 1MiB multiples, which are in turn multiples of eight sectors.
The risk with recent versions of fdisk is that if the disk began with
improper alignment, fdisk won't automatically correct for that when you
create subsequent partitions. You can also enter manual partition start
sectors that are improperly aligned. Thus, when you use fdisk, always
check your partition start points to ensure that they're multiples of 8.
While you're at it, verify that the program uses sectors as its unit
values; even versions later than 2.17 can use cylinders if you type
u at the main menu. Typing
p produces a display
that you can use to check these details, as shown in Listing 1. Although the unit value is not explicitly stated, it's
clear that the units are in sectors, because the start and end values are
so large. In this case, the final end value is on the final sector of the
disk: Compare it to the total sectors value near the start of the output.
Note that fdisk 2.17 and earlier are likely to complain that partitions
don't end on cylinder boundaries when they're properly aligned. You can
ignore this warning.
Listing 1. An example fdisk output demonstrating proper alignment
Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/sdb: 2000.4 GB, 2000398934016 bytes 256 heads, 63 sectors/track, 242251 cylinders, total 3907029168 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0x00000000 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sdb1 2048 2097151 1047552 83 Linux /dev/sdb2 2097152 3907029167 1952466008 83 Linux
When manipulating MBR disks, be aware that the alignment of extended partitions is unimportant. These partitions hold one-sector data structures that define logical partitions, so in a real sense, extended partitions can't be properly aligned. Take care to align primary and logical partitions, though.
The libparted library
The libparted library powers many Linux partitioning tools and supports
both MBR and GPT partitioning schemes. libparted 3.1 comes with the
text-mode parted partitioning tool, and since parted 2.2, you can align to
MiB boundaries by specifying start and end points in units of 1MiB or
larger. If you want to verify the alignment, type
unit s to
switch to sector units and check the partition start points, much as you
would with fdisk, as shown in Listing 2:
Listing 2. An example parted output demonstrating proper alignment
(parted) unit s (parted) print Model: ATA ST2000DL003-9VT1 (scsi) Disk /dev/sdb: 3907029168s Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: gpt Disk Flags: Number Start End Size File system Name Flags 1 2048s 2097151s 2095104s ntfs Windows 2 2097152s 3907029167s 3904932016s Linux
Using the graphical user interface (GUI) GParted program, be sure to set the Align to value to MiB in the Create new Partition dialog box, shown in Figure 8. Doing so should produce properly aligned partitions. You can bring up a partition's Information dialog box to learn what its start and end sectors are in absolute terms.
Figure 8. Take care to set the Align to value to MiB when creating partitions with GParted
GPT fdisk utilities
The GPT fdisk utilities are useful only with GPT disks. Versions before 0.5.2 don't perform any alignment, although you can align partitions manually by specifying appropriate start sector numbers. Versions 0.5.2 and 0.6.0 through 0.6.5 adjust the start sectors of all partitions to an eight-sector boundary for large disks (those larger than about 800GiB), but not for smaller disks. Version 0.6.6 introduces a Windows-style 2,048-sector (1MiB) alignment for all unpartitioned disks and attempts to infer the alignment used in the past on disks with existing partitions.
With versions 0.5.2 and later, you can manually adjust the alignment value
l option on the experts' menu. This option takes a
number of sectors as an option. Set it to
8 or a multiple of
that amount for proper alignment with Advanced Format disks. The verify
v on any menu) reports any partitions that aren't
properly aligned based on the current alignment value;
displays partition start and end points in sector values. Listing 3 demonstrates use of this program to verify
proper partition alignment:
Listing 3. An example gdisk output demonstrating proper alignment
Command (? for help): p Disk /dev/sdb: 3907029168 sectors, 1.8 TiB Logical sector size: 512 bytes Disk identifier (GUID): 4B18D328-5E8E-49DB-8690-9FE89807ABF8 Partition table holds up to 128 entries First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 3907029134 Partitions will be aligned on 8-sector boundaries Total free space is 6 sectors (3.0 KiB) Number Start (sector) End (sector) Size Code Name 1 40 409639 200.0 MiB 8300 Unused /boot 2 409640 819239 200.0 MiB 8300 Unused /boot 3 819240 3907029134 1.8 TiB 8E00 Linux LVM Command (? for help): v No problems found. 6 free sectors (3.0 KiB) available in 1 segments, the largest of which is 6 (3.0 KiB) in size.
At present, the safest assumption is that any new hard disk you buy uses Advanced Format technology. Of course, you can check manufacturer spec sheets to confirm this assumption, but aligning partitions as for an Advanced Format disk has no detrimental effects on older disk types except when using obsolete utilities or operating systems.
Today, some external disks use 4,096-byte sectors, but internal disks use sector size translation. This may change in the future. If you encounter a drive with 4,096-byte sectors but with an option to use the true sector size, you may want to use it; however, be aware of some caveats.
Software from the BIOS up may make assumptions about a hard disk's sector size. If the BIOS contains such an assumption, your computer probably won't boot from a disk that has 4,096-byte sectors and lacks firmware translation to 512-byte sectors. Using the latest software may help you work around problems, as may using a conventional disk as the boot disk, restricting your new-technology disk to use as a data disk.
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