One year ago, if you were to ask an honest Python evangelist if Python was missing anything important that Perl, for example, had, the answer would most likely have been "yes". It wasn't that Python lacked a breadth of module and package support (both Python native and extension modules). It certainly wasn't the clarity of expression or clean object orientation in which Python positively excels.
Building on the Python community
What Python was missing is what Perl developers describe as "social factors." But even here, the missing social factors were not the absence of an active, intelligent, and supportive Python community -- Python abounds in that. What the Python of a year ago sorely lacked was a sufficient programmatic infrastructure for sharing Python code. Code sharing was ad hoc, decentralized, and just plain too much work.
The first step in improving the social infrastructure of Python was probably Tim Middleton's creation of the Vaults of Parnassus (see Resources later in this article). For the first time, Python developers had a single place to turn for (nearly) all contributed third-party modules, packages, and tools. Still having its quirks, making it possibly less advanced (but nicer looking) than the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network, the Vaults merely point to actual resources rather than mirroring them. Manually maintained by Middleton, updates are sometimes slow; and Vex.Net (who generously hosts the Vaults) has had intermittent outages. Overall, however, the Vaults of Parnassus has provided an invaluable resource in building the architectural prerequisites of a strong Python community.
With such a common site available, all the Python community needed was a consistent and solid means of installing all of these available modules, packages, and tools; and equally clear ways of figuring out just what they did. To the rescue came several new standard modules in the standard Python distribution.
Ka-Ping Yee has created a quite remarkable module called
(for the "competition":
does everything that
perldoc does, but better and prettier :-). As of Python 2.1,
(and its supporting
) is part of the standard library. However, for users of Python 1.5.2, 1.6, or 2.0, downloading and installing
is extremely easy -- do so right away (see Resources).
By way of background for any Python beginners reading this, Python has long had some semi-formal documentation standards. These standards have not attempted to constrain developers unduly, but rather to offer the "one obvious way to do it." Fortunately, Python developers, as a rule, have always been far better documenters than typical developers in other languages.
The main element of good Python documentation is the use of so-called "docstrings." While a docstring is really just a variable called
_doc_, there is a ubiquitous shortcut for creating them: just put a bare (triple-)quoted string at the very beginning of a module, function
def, class definition, or method
def. In addition, there are several more-or-less standard module-level "magic" variable names that are often used. Despite the informality of the documentation rules, almost all third-party and standard modules use the same patterns. Let's look at a simplistic example that uses most of the elements:
Listing 1: Module mymod.py with typical documentation
#!/usr/bin/python """Show off features of [pydoc] module This is a silly module to demonstrate docstrings """ __author__ = 'David Mertz' __version__= '1.0' __nonsense__ = 'jabberwocky' class MyClass: """Demonstrate class docstrings""" def __init__ (self, spam=1, eggs=2): """Set default attribute values only Keyword arguments: spam -- a processed meat product eggs -- a fine breakfast for lumberjacks """ self.spam = spam self.eggs = eggs
module takes advantage of Python documentation conventions, as well as employing some savvy about Python imports, inheritance, and the like. Moreover,
has the absolute genius of allowing itself to be used in multiple modes of operation (more on this shortly). For a few moments, let's look at the
manpage style usage at an OS command line.
Let's say you had the above module
installed on your system, but weren't sure what it was for (not much in the example). You might read the source, but even easier might be:
Listing 2: Getting 'manpage' style documentation
% pydoc.py mymod Python Library Documentation: module mymod NAME mymod - Show off features of [pydoc] module FILE /articles/scratch/cp18/mymod.py DESCRIPTION This is a silly module to demonstrate docstrings CLASSES MyClass class MyClass | Demonstrate class docstrings | | __init__(self, spam=1, eggs=2) | Set default attribute values only | | Keyword arguments: | spam -- a processed meat product | eggs -- a fine breakfast for lumberjacks DATA __author__ = 'David Mertz' __file__ = './mymod.pyc' __name__ = 'mymod' __nonsense__ = 'jabberwocky' __version__ = '1.0' VERSION 1.0 AUTHOR David Mertz
Depending on your specific platform and setup, the above sample will probably be presented in a text viewer that allows scrolling, searching, and so on, and with some highlighting of keywords. For something this simple, what you get is only slightly better than just reading the source, but consider something as simple as:
Listing 3: Examining the inheritance structure of a class
% cat mymod2.py from mymod import MyClass class MyClass2(MyClass): """Child class""" def foo(self): pass % pydoc.py mymod2.MyClass2 Python Library Documentation: class MyClass2 in mymod2 class MyClass2(mymod.MyClass) | Child class | | __init__(self, spam=1, eggs=2) from mymod.MyClass | | foo(self)
In this quick report we can tell that
MyClass2 has the methods
foo() (and the arguments thereto), and also which methods are implemented locally, and which other methods come from ancestors (and where those ancestors live).
manpage-like feature is the
-k option for searching modules for keywords. For example:
Listing 4: Locating the right module for a task
% pydoc.py -k uuencode uu - Implementation of the UUencode and UUdecode functions. % pydoc.py uu Python Library Documentation: module uu NAME uu - Implementation of the UUencode and UUdecode functions. [...]
Besides its command-line usage,
has four other "modes" that can present the same generated documentation:
- Shell mode:
Inside the Python interactive shell, you may import
help()function, and get assistance on any object without leaving the interactive session. You can also just type
helpby itself to get into an interactive "help interpreter." For example:
Listing 5: Interactive help interpreter in Shell mode
#------- Interactive shell with help enhancements ------# >>> from pydoc import help >>> import uu >>> help(uu.test) Help on function test in module uu: test() uuencode/uudecode main program >>> help Welcome to Python 2.0! This is the online help utility. [...introductory message about help shell...] help>
Web server mode: Just use the
pydocwill launch itself as a simple Web server on LOCALHOST. You can use any Web browser to browse all the modules installed on the current system. The home page for this server is a list of modules, grouped by directory (and with attractive color blocks for browsers supporting that). Moreover, every module whose documentation you view becomes generously littered with links to any modules, functions and methods it imports.
HTML generator mode:
-woption can generate an HTML documentation page for anything
pydoccan document. These pages are essentially the same thing you might browse in Web server mode, but the pages are static and available for archiving, transmission, and so forth.
TK browser mode:
-goption will create a "graphical help browser," much along the lines of
As of Python 1.6, the
package has become part of the standard Python library. There are two aspects of
distutils. On the one side,
hopes to make installation of new modules, packages, and tools uniform and easy for end users. On the other side,
distutils also hopes to make the creation of these easy-to-install distributions easy on their developers. Let's look at both aspects briefly.
In the very simplest case, a developer will have chosen to create an installer for your specific platform. If this is the case, you really don't need to know that
exists at all. Currently,
is capable of creating RPMs for those Linux systems that support that format, and Windows EXE self-installers for Win32 systems. While these are big players, other platforms exist also or the developer might have had access to your platform (or the time or interest in making an installer).
Fortunately, short of the simplest case, the next best case is hardly any more difficult. Assuming you get a
-aware source distribution, you can count on a number of things (if nothing goes wrong, of course). The distribution archive should be in a standard archive format -- usually either
.tar.gz (in odd cases you might find
tar.Z, and hopefully
.sit support will be added for MacOS soon). Most of the time, Windows users use zips, and Linux/UNIX users use tarballs. But it is not hard to unpack most formats on most platforms. Once you have unpacked the archive, you'll get a collection of files in a directory named in the same fashion as the archive. For example:
Listing 6: Unpacking a [distutils] archive
E:\Archive\devel>unzip -q Distutils-1_0_2.zip E:\Archive\devel>cd Distutils-1.0.2 E:\Archive\devel\Distutils-1.0.2>ls The volume label in drive E is ARCHIVE. The Volume Serial Number is E825:C814. Directory of E:\Archive\devel\Distutils-1.0.2 6-14-01 0:38a <DIR> 0 . 6-14-01 0:38a <DIR> 0 .. 5-03-01 6:30p 15355 0 CHANGES.txt 5-03-01 6:32p <DIR> 0 distutils 5-03-01 6:32p <DIR> 0 doc 5-03-01 6:32p <DIR> 0 examples 10-02-00 11:47p 373 0 MANIFEST.in 5-03-01 6:32p <DIR> 0 misc 5-03-01 6:32p 496 0 PKG-INFO 4-20-01 2:30p 14407 0 README.txt 6-29-00 11:45p 1615 0 setup.cfg 5-03-01 6:17p 1120 0 setup.py 4-20-01 2:29p 9116 0 TODO 4-11-00 9:40p 836 0 USAGE.txt
Most module distributions will have fewer files and directories than this one. The only thing you really need is the file
setup.py, which contains instructions for the install. Realistically though, one hopes there are
other files in the directory so that
setup.py has something to install. From here, all you need to do is:
E:\archive\devel\Distutils-1.0.2> python setup.py install
At least that
be all you need to do. If something goes wrong, read the
README file that is likely included. And after that, check out Greg Ward's
Installing Python Modules
But what is going on "under the hood"? As you can guess from the name,
setup.py is really just a plain Python script, so it can do
when it runs. But in almost all cases,
setup.py will have a pretty stereotypical form. It might look something like:
Listing 7: Minimal setup.py installation script
#!/usr/bin/env python """Setup script for the sample #1 module distribution: single top-level pure Python module, named explicitly in 'py_modules'.""" from distutils.core import setup setup (# Distribution meta-data name = "sample", version = "1.0", description = "Distutils sample distribution #1", # Description of modules and packages in the distribution py_modules = ['sample'], )
The real work here is performed by the imported
distutils, specifically by the
setup() function. Basically,
setup() takes a bunch of named arguments, including a list of things to install (besides
py_modules, there might be
ext_modules or some other things).
The magic of
creating a module distribution uses the very same
setup.py file as installing it does. Once you -- the module developer -- have created a
setup.py script (and maybe 'setup.cfg or other adjuncts) that specifies what needs to get installed, all you need to do to create the distribution is (one or more of the following):
Listing 8: Creating a module distribution
% python setup.py sdist % python setup.py bdist_wininst % python setup.py bdist_rpm
Depending on which specific distribution you specify, you will create either a standard archive (tarball or zip file, depending on platform) or a full installer (as discussed above).
Putting it all together
We are not quite there yet, but Python is getting to be one of the easiest to use programming languages, and also one of the easiest to use programming communities. Some of these new tools still have one or two kinks to iron out, but in a general way, everything one needs to make Python "transparent" to users has been put in place.
- Read the previous installments of Charming Python.
- The Vaults of Parnassus contains numerous Python resources, including applications, games, graphics, books, Web sites, and tutorials.
- If you are using a version of Python earlier than 2.1, you can still obtain
pydocfrom web.lfw.org (Little Fantasy World).
- You will also need to pick up the supporting
inspectmodule, also from web.lfw.org.
- Python documentation conventions are discussed in Guido van Rossum's Python Style Guide .
- Some enhancements to Python documentation conventions have recently been proposed in Python Enhancement Proposals (PEPs) 256, 257, and 258. These may or may not become part of future Python versions, but it might be interesting to look at the ideas.
- Another new module that helps in assuring the quality and correctness of documentation is
doctest. The basic purpose of this module is to allow automatic evaluation and verification of the interactive session behavior that is often pictured within docstrings.
- Users of Python 1.5.x would do well to download the latest
distutilspackage. For most users of Python 1.6+, it is easiest to stick with the version of
distutilsthat came with Python.
- Greg Ward's
Installing Python Modules
is a good introduction to the end user of
distutils. (If you download a current Python documentation set, you get a version of this document, but the current version of the document is probably at the link above.)
- Greg Ward has also written
Distributing Python Modules
, which discusses
distutilsfrom the module developer's point of view. It can also be found in the current Python documentation.