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Introducing the Java Message Service

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Willy Farrell is a senior software engineer in the IBM Developer Skills Program. As part of the developerWorks team, he provides relevant technical information and insight to developers on the latest e-business and industry trends through Web content, articles, speaking engagements, and consulting to faculty at IBM Scholars Program member universities. He has been programming computers for a living since 1981, began using Java in 1996, and joined IBM in 1998.

Summary:  This tutorial provides an introductory overview of the Java Message Service, its functionality, and its capabilities. You will learn the basic programming techniques for creating JMS programs and work with sample code that demonstrates these techniques. Note: This tutorial has been updated to include changes to JMS version 1.1.

Date:  08 Jun 2004
Level:  Introductory PDF:  A4 and Letter (157 KB | 44 pages)Get Adobe® Reader®

Comments:  

New in JMS 1.1: Common interfaces

JMS 1.1 introduction

In this section, we'll look at each of the important JMS common interfaces for JMS client programming and some of their methods. It is important to remember that although the common interfaces are domain-independent, the behavior of client code matches the domain-specific behavior for the domain in operation at runtime.

In the next section (Client programming with common interfaces ), we'll look at some sample code that performs JMS message processing.

ConnectionFactory

ConnectionFactory is an administered object that is retrieved from JNDI to create a connection to a provider. It contains a createConnection() method, which returns a Connection object.

Connection

Connection encapsulates an active connection to a provider. Some of its methods are:

  • createSession(boolean, int): Returns a Session object. The boolean parameter indicates whether the Session is transacted or not; the int indicates the acknowledgment mode (see Acknowledgment ).

  • start(): Activates the delivery of messages from the provider.

  • stop(): Temporarily stops delivery of messages; delivery can be restarted with start().

  • close(): Closes the connection to the provider and releases all resources held in its behalf.


Session

Session is the single-threaded context for sending and receiving messages. Some of its methods are:

  • createProducer(Destination): Returns a MessageProducer object to send messages to the specified Destination.

  • createConsumer(Destination): Returns a MessageConsumer object to receive messages from the specified Destination.

  • commit(): Commits all consumed or produced messages for the current transaction.

  • rollback(): Rolls back all consumed or produced messages for the current transaction.

  • create<MessageType>Message(...): A variety of methods that return a <MessageType>Message -- for example, MapMessage, TextMessage, and so on.


Destination

Destination encapsulates a destination for messages. It is an administered object that is retrieved from JNDI.


MessageProducer

MessageProducer is used to send messages. Some of its methods are:

  • send(Message): Sends the indicated Message.

  • setDeliveryMode(int): Sets the delivery mode for subsequent messages sent; valid values are DeliveryMode.PERSISTENT and DeliveryMode.NON_PERSISTENT.

  • setPriority(int): Sets the priority for subsequent messages sent; valid values are 0 through 9.

  • setTimeToLive(long): Sets the duration before expiration, in milliseconds, of subsequent messages sent.


MessageConsumer

MessageConsumer is used to receive messages. Some of its methods are:

  • receive(): Returns the next message that arrives; this method blocks until a message is available.

  • receive(long): Receives the next message that arrives within long milliseconds; this method returns null if no message arrives within the time limit.

  • receiveNoWait: Receives the next message if one is immediately available; this method returns null if no message is available.

  • setMessageListener(MessageListener): Sets the MessageListener; the MessageListener object receives messages as they arrive, that is, asynchronously (see MessageListener ).


MessageListener

MessageListener is an interface with a single method -- onMessage(Message) -- that provides asynchronous receipt and processing of messages.

This interface should be implemented by a client class and an instance of that class passed to the MessageConsumer object with the setMessageListener(MessageListener) method. As a message arrives at a destination, it is passed to the object with the onMessage(Message) method.

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