Full-featured, built-in profilers like JConsole and VisualVM sometimes cost more than they're worth in performance overhead — particularly in systems running on production hardware. So, in this second article focusing on Java performance monitoring, I'll introduce five command-line profiling tools that enable developers to focus on just one aspect of a running Java process.
The JDK includes many command-line utilities that can be used to monitor and manage Java application performance. Although most of them are labeled "experimental" and therefore technically unsupported, they're still useful. Some might even be seed material for special-purpose tools that could be built using JVMTI or JDI (see Resources).
1. jps (sun.tools.jps)
Many command-line tools require that you identify the Java process that you want to monitor. This isn't so different from similar tools that monitor native-operating-system processes and also require a process identifier to work.
The "VMID" identifier is not always the same as the native operating system
process identifier ("pid"), which is why we need the JDK's
jps— whose name reflects the
found on most UNIX systems — tells us the JVMID of a running Java
application. As its name implies,
jps returns the VMIDs for
all discoverable Java processes running on a given machine. If
jps doesn't discover a process, it doesn't mean that the Java
process can't be attached or spelunked. It just means that it isn't
advertising itself as available.
If the Java process can be found,
jps will list the
command-line used to launch it. This way of differentiating between Java
processes is important because, as far as the operating system is
concerned, all Java programs are "
java." For most purposes,
the VMID is the important number to note.
Getting started with profilers
The easiest way to get started with profiling utilities is to use a demo
program like the SwingSet2 demo found at
Doing this avoids potential hangups with processes running as
background/daemon processes. Once you're familiar with the tool and its
overhead, you can try it on your actual programs.
After you load up your demo app, run
jps and note the returned
vmid. For best effect, launch the Java program with the
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote property set. If you don't use
this setting, some data gathered by some of the tools below will be
2. jstat (sun.tools.jstat)
jstat utility can be used to gather a variety of different
jstat statistics are sorted into "options" that
are specified at the command-line as the first parameter. As of JDK 1.6,
you can view the list of options available by running
with the command
-options. Some options are shown in Listing
Listing 1. jstat options
-class -compiler -gc -gccapacity -gccause -gcnew -gcnewcapacity -gcold -gcoldcapacity -gcpermcapacity -gcutil -printcompilation
The utility's JDK documentation (see Resources)
will tell you what each of the options in Listing 1 returns, but the
majority of them are used to gather performance information about the
garbage collector, or just parts of it. The
reveals loaded and unloaded classes (making it a great utility for
ClassLoader leaks within the app server or your
code), and both
display information about the Hotspot JIT compiler.
jstat will display the information at the moment
you check it. If you want snapshots taken at regular intervals, specify
the intervals in milliseconds following the
jstat will continuously display snapshots of the monitored
process's information. If you want
jstat to take a specific
number of snapshots before terminating, specify that number after the
If 5756 were the VMID for a running SwingSet2 process started a few minutes
ago, then the following command would tell
jstat to produce a
gc snapshot dump every 250 milliseconds for 10 iterations, then quit:
jstat -gc 5756 250 10
Note that Sun (now Oracle) reserved the right to change the output of the
various options, or even the options themselves, without warning. That's
the downside of using unsupported utilities. See the Javadocs for complete
details about each of the columns in the
3. jstack (sun.tools.jstack)
Knowing what's happening inside of a Java process vis-a-vis the executing threads is a common diagnostic challenge. For example, when an application has suddenly stopped processing, it's obvious that some kind of starvation has been reached, but it isn't obvious just by looking at the code where the starvation has occurred, or why.
jstack is a utility that returns a complete dump of the
various threads running in an app, which you can then use to pinpoint the
jstack with the VMID of the desired process will
generate a stack dump. In this regard,
jstack works the same
as pressing Ctrl-Break within the console window in which a Java program
is running, or calling
Thread.dumpStack() on each of the
in the VM. A
jstack call also dumps information about
non-Java threads running within the VM, which aren't always available as
-l parameter offers up a slightly longer
dump that includes more detailed information about the locks held by each
of the Java threads, and can thus be invaluable in finding (and
squashing!) deadlock or scalability bugs.
4. jmap (sun.tools.jmap)
Sometimes, the problem you're dealing with is an object leak, such as an
ArrayList (which could hold thousands of objects) that just
isn't getting released when it should. Another problem that is more
general would be an expanding heap that never seems to shrink, despite
active garbage collection.
When you're trying to locate an object leak, it's incredibly helpful to
take a picture of the heap at a given moment in time, and then look
through what's there.
jmap provides the first part of that
functionality by taking a snapshot picture of the heap. You can then
analyze the heap data using the
jhat utility described in the
jmap is straightforward, like all the other utilities
described here. Simply point
jmap at the VMID of the Java
process you want to snapshot, and give it some parameters to describe the
resulting file produced. The options you'll pass to
consist of the name of the file to dump to and whether to use a text file
or binary file. A binary file is the most useful option, but only when
combined with some kind of indexing tool — manually slogging
through several megabytes of text filled with hexadecimal values is not
the best way to spend your day.
For a more casual glance at the Java heap,
jmap also supports
-histo produces a text
histogram of the objects currently strongly referenced in the heap, sorted
by the total number of bytes consumed by that particular type. It also
gives the total number of instances of that particular type, which allows
for some primitive calculations and guesses about relative cost per
jmap doesn't have a period-and-max-count option
jstat does, but it's relatively easy to put calls to
jmap (or to
jmap.main()) into a loop in either a
shell script or other class to take snapshots periodically. (In fact, this
would be a good extension to add to
jmap, either as a source
patch to the OpenJDK itself or as an extension to another utility.)
5. jhat (com.sun.tools.hat.Main)
Once you've dumped the heap into a binary file, you can use
jhat to analyze the binary heap dump file.
creates an HTTP/HTML server that can be surfed in a browser, giving an
object-by-object view of the heap, frozen in time. While it could be
amusing to walk through the heap, object reference by object reference,
you're probably better served by doing some kind of automated analysis of
the whole mess. Fortunately,
jhat supports an OQL syntax for
doing that analysis.
For example, running an OQL query for all
Strings with more
than 100 characters would look like this:
select s from java.lang.String s where s.count >= 100
The results are displayed as links to the objects, which then display the
complete contents of that object, the field references to other objects as
additional links that can be dereferenced. OQL queries can also invoke
methods on the objects themselves, use regular expressions as part of the
query, and use built-in query tools. One query tool, the
referrers() function, displays all the referrers that refer
to an object of a given type. Here's the query to find all the referrers
select referrers(f) from java.io.File f
You can find the full syntax of OQL and its features under the "OQL Help"
page inside the
jhat browser environment. Combining
jhat with OQL is a powerful way to do a targeted
investigation of a misbehaving heap.
The JDK's profiling extensions can be very useful when you need to get a
closer look at what's going on inside a Java process. All of the tools
introduced in this article can be used by themselves from the command
line. They also can be powerfully combined with JConsole or VisualVM.
Whereas JConsole and VisualVM provide an overarching view of the Java
virtual machine, specifically focused tools like
jmap let you fine-tune your investigation.
Coming up in the 5 things series: scripting.
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- 5 things you didn't know about ... (Ted Neward, developerWorks, 2010): Find out how much you don't know about the Java platform, in this series dedicated to turning Java technology trivia into useful programming tips.
- JDK Tools and Utilities: Learn about the experimental monitoring
and troubleshooting tools discussed in this article:
- "Top 10 Java Performance Troubleshooting Tools" (Sajan Kumar, Javalobby, July 2008): JConsole is at the top of this list, followed by a number of tools that could be new to readers of this article.
- "Acquiring JVM Runtime Information" (Dustin Marx, Dustin's
Software Development Cogitations and Speculations, June 2009): More ways
to combine the JDK's built-in monitoring and management tools such as
- "Java theory and practice: Urban performance legends" (Brian Goetz, developerWorks, April 2003): Brian investigates three well-known "facts" about Java performance.
- "Java theory and practice: Plugging memory leaks with weak references" (Brian Goetz, developerWorks, November 2005): How to detect and resolve a common cause of unintentional object retention.
- JVMTI (JVM Tool Interface): Learn more about the the Java platform-native programming interface that supports profiling, debugging, monitoring, thread analysis, and coverage analysis tools. JDI (Java Debug Interface) provides information for debuggers that need to remotely access the running state of VM.
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