Like many tales of woe, this story begins innocently enough. I received the go-ahead
to perform a disaster recovery audit on my client's IBM i system and was looking at
their current tape backup scheme. I ran the Display Backup List (
DSPBCKUPL) command, which is surely one of the most useful and
underrated commands in the operating system, and printed its list of libraries. This
command is a good way to determine the time when a library was last completely saved
and whether any objects within that library have changed since then. I noticed that
one library, SXDATA, had not been saved since July 2009!
My client's backup routine calls for all the user libraries to be saved each
night using the Save Library (
SAVLIB) command. This
library should not have been skipped, and my client and I could not find
any omit statements in the backup program that would have excluded it. To everyone's
horror, we realized that this library contained important data and maintained
invoice records going back many years. Without getting more melodramatic, we were
extremely relieved that IBM i is so reliable because this library did not exist on
any of the backup tapes. Any computer room disaster that required a full recovery of
the system would have sunk the business as this library would have been lost for
Reviewing the history logs and job logs of the backup did not produce a smoking gun. We only saw this cryptic message:
CPF3770 Diagnostic No objects saved or restored for library SXDATA
This was not as simple as a few damaged objects being omitted from the backup. The
entire library was being passed over. To make things worse, efforts to
display the contents of the library proved fruitless. Commands such as
DSPLIB SXDATA seemed to go into a loop, and we ran out of
patience waiting for the response at the 40-minute mark. We knew that the data
existed because programs accessing the files were working. We just could not work
with the library in total. Attempts to save the library by itself, with the
save-while-active feature, resulted in the same diagnostic message. We were also
dismayed that the error message was not more conspicuous. Message text with a little
urgency, such as
Hey, you just skipped a COMPLETE
library!, would have been welcome.
Fortunately, when we knew which library was in trouble, we were able to diagnose the problem. We had unknowingly brushed up against a size limitation within the IBM i operating system. There is a nebulous limit of the number of objects in a library, and when you get near it, unpredictable results will occur. This limit, quoting from the IBM i Information Center, is approximately 360,000 objects. The result of approaching that limit was the inability to save the library and the failure to display the list of the library's contents. With some help from the programming team, we were able to weed out enough objects to solve the problem and avoid a close encounter with Murphy's Law.
The problem I just described opened my eyes to an issue that is likely to be lurking on many IBM i systems. Systems are getting larger, and more data is being created and maintained online. In the 1980s and early 1990s, few IBM AS/400® systems had more than one terabyte (TB) of disk space. Now it is common to have that much disk storage on the smallest IBM POWER7® processor-based system. In addition, there are systems that have been in productive use for decades, and the data is piling up. It follows then that you need to be more mindful about the file and database limits to avoid problems that may range from incomplete backups to impaired performance to unpredictable results.
Figure 1. Key file system limits for IBM i 7.1
Note that this table comes from two different sections of the Information Center. The file system limits are from the Availability chapter, while the database file sizes are from the Programming section.
The system generates warning messages when it reaches the threshold of total disk space used—typically when the disks are 90% full. However, there do not seem to be any similar warnings when an individual library or a data file approaches its limit. Therefore, it is up to the system administrators to track the growth of the libraries and the data files. By knowing that trouble is brewing, you can take measures to reduce the number of objects before a real problem occurs. Fortunately, there are tools within the operating system to help.
You can avoid the anxiety of incomplete backups by keeping track of the objects stored on IBM i and watching as they grow and approach the IBM i limits. Table 1 lists the key measurements to watch.
Table 1. Key measurements to watch on IBM i
|Total disk usage||Keep below 70% for best performance. For good capacity management, information technology (IT) departments should always keep track of this measurement to anticipate when a disk upgrade or data archiving is needed.|
|Total size of each library||See which libraries are using the most space or growing the fastest.|
|Total number of objects||See which libraries have the most objects. Note milestones such as 150,000, 200,000 and 250,000 objects to avoid the problem described at the beginning of this article.|
There is no command that can display the total size of a library, although
the Display Library (
DSPLIB) command provides a total if
you choose the print option. That said, IBM has long provided an excellent tool to
gather information about all the libraries in one fell swoop: the
You must submit
RTVDSKINF as a batch job, but it serves a
vital function for system management. It collects data on all the objects on the IBM
i (with an emphasis on the library objects) and puts it in the QAEZDISK file in the
QUSRSYS library. You can display the information in a report using the Print Disk
PRTDSKINF) command. The report provides a
summary of the amount of space that is used by the various types of objects (Figure 2).
In this example, you can see that 71.35% of the disk space is used by the user
libraries (libraries that not used for IBM software products). User directories,
part of the integrated file system (IFS), use 4.69%. The value of 20.13% for unused
space leads to the conclusion that the total disk space was 79.87% full at the time
PRTDSKINF command ran.
Depending on the values you use in the
it presents a list of all the libraries along with their total size (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Library section of the disk report from the
Having this data in a report is nice, but ideally you want to keep this information
in a file and add data from each subsequent running of the
RTVDSKINF command. Then you can mine this data to show the growth of
objects in each library and the total disk space used over time.
This is a challenge because
RTVDSKINF overwrites the
QAEZDISK file each time it runs. Therefore, you need to establish a new file that
holds the data from each
RTVDSKINF process along with a
date field. You can do this with a high-level language program, but even a simple
Query/400 program works.
Structured Query Language (SQL) statements can extract and summarize data from the
QAEZDISK file after the
RTVDSKINF job ends. Listing 1 shows a statement that creates the table (called
EDLIB/EDDISKDATA) that holds this data based on the QAEZDISK file format.
Listing 1. Sample SQL
CREATEstatement to set up table for holding data
CREATE TABLE EDLIB/EDDISKDATA (LIBRARY_NAME , OBJECT_COUNT , TOTAL_OBJECT_SIZE , DATE) AS (SELECT diobli, count(diobnm), sum(diobsz), current date FROM qusrsys/qaezdisk WHERE diobli <> ' ' GROUP BY diobli ORDER BY diobli) WITH NO DATA
Listing 2 shows the statement that gathers the data from the
RTVDSKINF job and inserts it into the new file.
The input fields are:
diobnm(name of object)
diobsz(size of objects)
current date(insert the current date)
Listing 2. Sample SQL to select and periodically add data to table
INSERT INTO edlib/eddiskdata SELECT diobli, count(diobnm), sum(diobsz), current date FROM qusrsys/qaezdisk WHERE DIOBLI <> ' ' GROUP BY diobli ORDER BY diobli
Figure 4 contains a sample of the data resulting from these procedures.
Figure 4. Sample output of the EDDISKDATA file
The following is an example of a Query/400 definition that launches after the
RTVDSKINF batch job completes. It gathers data records from
the collection and adds them to a file so that the data accumulates.
Select QAEZDISK in the QUSRSYS library as the source file (Figure 5).
Figure 5. Selecting QAEZDISK as the source file
Create a new field, called TODAY, that contains the current date and add it to each record (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Creating a new field that contains the current date
Select the following fields to use in the new file (Figure 7):
- Object Library
- Object Type
- Object Size
- Last Changed Date
- Last Used Date
- Object Status
Figure 7. Selecting the fields to use in the new file
Specify that the new file sorts by library name (Figure 8).
Figure 8. Sorting the file by the library name
Specify the following summary functions for the report (Figure 9):
- Count of objects (to get the total number in the library)
- Total of object size (to get the total size of the library)
Figure 9. Specifying summary functions for the report
Define the report breaks for the Object Library and current(date) fields (Figure 10).
Figure 10. Defining report breaks
Specify that the output records will be placed in a database file with
Summary onlyas the output form (Figure 11). This means that you will capture only the following fields:
- Object Library
- Object (total count only)
- Object Size (total only)
- current (date)
Figure 11. Specifying the output records that will be in a database file
Add the latest data records to the existing file member (Figure 12). This means that you will accumulate data from each
RTVDSKINFjob. In this example, the file that contains the data is EDLIB/EDDISKDATA.
Figure 12. Adding the data records to the current file
You can make the query more elegant by selecting specific library records and by formatting the date in a yymmdd format so that it is easier to sort.
After you run this query (or comparable program), you can download the updated file into a spreadsheet for analysis (Figure 13).
Figure 13. Spreadsheet of the library data for each week—filtering is allowed
Using the Microsoft® Office Excel pivot tables, you can put this data into a chart showing the change in the library size over time (Figure 14).
Figure 14. Chart showing the change of specific library sizes from week to week
Another view of the same data table shows the total number of objects in each library (Figure 15).
Figure 15. Libraries containing the most number of objects over time
Now that you maintain this data in a single file, you can use more elaborate routines to look for specific criteria. For example, you can scan the file for libraries whose total number of objects exceed 200,000 or for libraries that grow in size by more than 10% from week to week. You can have a warning email or operator message sent if these conditions occur so that IT support is not caught off-guard when the size limits are reached.
RTVDSKINF command is useful, it does not capture
information about the current number of records or members in a physical file. As
shown earlier, these are attributes that also have limits within IBM i. You can use
an approach similar to the one for library sizes to maintain physical file members.
In this case, you can run an SQL
SELECT statement against
the QSYS2/SYSPARTITIONSTAT view to get real-time information about the members in a
physical file. See Listing 3 for an example.
Listing 3. SQL statement extracting data from the QSYS2/SYSPARTITIONSTAT view
SELECT table_schema, table_name, number_rows, data_size, table_partition FROM syspartitionstat WHERE table_schema = 'QGPL'
IBM introduced the SYSPARTITIONSTAT view with the V5R4 release of IBM i. This view
makes it simple to retrieve the number of records for a member without having to
first run a Display File Description (
DSPFD) command to
copy the member information to an output file.
The result of this SQL query (Figure 16) includes data records containing :
- TABLE_SCHEMA (analogous to the library name)
- TABLE_NAME (analogous to the physical file name)
- TABLE_PARTITION (analogous to member name)
- NUMBER_ROWS (analogous to the number of records)
- DATA_SIZE (the size of the table partition)
Figure 16. Results of the SQL statement against the SYSPARTITIONSTAT view
You can use all of these in a query to monitor the number of records and members that accumulate over time.
It is clear that you cannot easily dismiss the file and database limits that IBM has documented. Fortunately, there are tools available to provide information about how files and libraries are growing. Even if your system is far from the size limits, these tools provide an excellent way to manage the storage capacity.
Visit the IBM i 7.1 Information Center to learn more about the following:
If you are using IBM i 6.1, the IBM i 6.1 Information Center provides information on the same topics:
- Check out the GO DISKTASKS Overview IBM Software Technical Document.
- Read "Another Way to
Retrieve i5 System Storage Space" (IT Jungle, May 2007).
- The developerWorks IBM i zone provides a wealth
of information relating to all aspects of IBM i systems administration.
- New to IBM i? Visit the New to IBM i page to
Check out our blogs and get involved in the developerWorks Community.
Eduardo Delgado worked as an IBM systems engineer for 14 years, serving as an IBM i specialist for the Santa Monica, California, office. He supported IBM customers and provided technical support for IBM marketing representatives. Since 1994, he has been a self-employed consultant supporting clients who rely on the IBM i operating system for their businesses. He complements IT staff members with systems operations and management assistance while providing planning and installation support for hardware and software upgrades.You can reach him at email@example.com