Before you start
About this series
Thinking about seeking certification on DB2 fundamentals (Exam 730)? If so, you've landed in the right spot. This series of seven DB2 certification preparation tutorials covers all the basics -- the topics you'll need to understand before you read the first exam question. Even if you're not planning to seek certification right away, this set of tutorials is a great place to begin learning what's new in DB2 9.
About this tutorial
This tutorial explains how DB2 uses SQL to manipulate data in a relational database.. The material provided herein primarily covers the objectives in Section 4 of the exam, which is entitled "Working with DB2 Data using SQL and XQuery." You can view these objectives at: http://www-03.ibm.com/certify/tests/obj730.shtml.
Topics covered in this tutorial include:
- An introduction to SQL
- A description of Data Manipulation Language (DML) and examples that demonstrate how to use it to obtain specific information.
- Transaction boundaries
- SQL procedures and user-defined functions
After completing this tutorial, you should be able to:
- Understand the fundamentals of SQL, with a focus on SQL language elements
- Use DML to select, insert, update, or delete data
- Use COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements to manage transactions, and know what constitutes a transaction boundary
- Create and call SQL procedures or invoke user-defined functions from the command line
If you haven't already done so, you can download the free trial version of IBM DB2 9 to work along with this tutorial. Installing DB2 helps you understand many of the concepts that are tested on the DB2 9 Fundamentals Certification exam. DB2 installation is not covered in this tutorial, but the process is documented in the DB2 Information Center.
Conventions used in this tutorial
The following text highlighting conventions are used in this tutorial:
Monospacedtext is used for SQL statements.
UPPERCASEtext identifies SQL keywords, and
lowercasetext identifies user-supplied values in example code.
- Except in the code, database object names are given in uppercase characters, and table column names are given in mixed case.
- Italic text is used when introducing a new term, or to identify a parameter variable.
All of the examples in this tutorial are based on the SAMPLE database, which comes with DB2. Because sample output is provided in most cases, you do not need access to the product to understand the examples.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
The parts of speech of SQL
SQL is a language that is used to define and manipulate database objects. Use SQL to define a database table, insert data into the table, change the data in the table, and retrieve data from the table. Like all languages, SQL has a defined syntax and a set of language elements.
Most SQL statements contain one or more of the following language elements:
- Single-byte characters can be a letter (A-Z, a-z, $, #, and @, or a member of an extended character set), a digit (0-9), or a special character (including the comma, asterisk, plus sign, percent sign, ampersand, and several others).
- A token is a sequence of one or more characters. It cannot contain blank characters unless it is a delimited identifier (one or more characters enclosed by double quotation marks) or a string constant.
- An SQL identifier is a token that is used to form a name.
- The data type of a value determines how DB2 interprets that value. DB2 supports many built-in data types and also supports user-defined types (UDTs).
- A constant specifies a value. They are classified as character, graphic, or hexadecimal string constants, or integer, decimal, or floating-point numeric constants.
- A special register is a storage area that is defined for an
application process by the database manager and is used to store
information that can be referenced in SQL statements. Examples of
special registers are
CURRENT DBPARTITIONNUM, and
- A routine can be a function, a method, or a procedure.
- A function is a relationship between one or more
input data values and one or more result values. Database
functions can be either built-in or user-defined.
Column (or aggregate) functions operate on a set of values in a column to return a single value. For example:
SUM(sales)returns the sum of the values in the Sales column.
AVG(sales)returns the sum of the values in the Sales column divided by the number of values in that column.
MIN(sales)returns the smallest value in the Sales column.
MAX(sales)returns the largest value in the Sales column.
COUNT(sales)returns the number of non-null values in the Sales column.
Scalar functions operate on a single value to return another single value. For example:
ABS(-5)returns the absolute value of -5 -- that is, 5.
HEX(69)returns the hexadecimal representation of the number 69 -- that is, 45000000.
LENGTH('Pierre')returns the number of bytes in the string "Pierre" -- that is, 6. For a GRAPHIC string, the LENGTH function returns the number of double-byte characters.
YEAR('03/14/2002')extracts the year portion of 03/14/2002 -- that is, 2002.
MONTH('03/14/2002')extracts the month portion of 03/14/2002 -- that is, 3.
DAY('03/14/2002')extracts the day portion of 03/14/2002 -- that is, 14.
LOWER('SHAMAN')returns a string in which all of the characters have been converted to lowercase characters -- that is, 'shaman'.
UPPER('shaman')returns a string in which all of the characters have been converted to uppercase characters -- that is, 'SHAMAN'.
User-defined functions are registered to a database in the system catalog (accessible through the
SYSCAT.ROUTINEScatalog view) using the
- A method is also a relationship between a set of
input data values and a set of result values. However,
database methods are defined, either implicitly or
explicitly, as part of the definition of a user-defined
structured type. For example, a method called CITY (of
type ADDRESS) is passed an input value of type
VARCHAR, and the result is a subtype of ADDRESS. User-defined methods are registered to a database in the system catalog (accessible through the
SYSCAT.ROUTINEScatalog view) using the
CREATE METHODstatement. For more information about structured types, refer to An introduction to structured data types and typed tables.
- A procedure is an application program that can be
started by executing a
CALLstatement. The arguments of a procedure are individual scalar values that can be of different types and that can be used to pass values into the procedure, receive return values from the procedure, or both. User-defined procedures are registered to a database in the system catalog (accessible through the
SYSCAT.ROUTINEScatalog view) using the
- A function is a relationship between one or more input data values and one or more result values. Database functions can be either built-in or user-defined.
- An expression specifies a value. There are string expressions, arithmetic expressions, and case expressions, which can be used to specify a particular result based on the evaluation of one or more conditions.
- A predicate specifies a condition that is true, false, or
unknown about a given row or group. There are subtypes:
- A basic predicate compares two values (for example, x > y).
BETWEENpredicate compares a value with a range of values.
EXISTSpredicate tests for the existence of certain rows.
INpredicate compares one or more values with a collection of values.
LIKEpredicate searches for strings that have a certain pattern.
NULLpredicate tests for null values.
Data Manipulation Language (DML)
Using the SELECT statement to retrieve data from database tables
SELECT statement is used to retrieve
table or view data. In its simplest form, the
SELECT statement can be used to retrieve
all the data in a table. For example, to retrieve all the STAFF data
from the SAMPLE database, issue the following command:
SELECT * FROM staff
Here is a partial result set returned by this query:
Partial result set
To restrict the number of rows in a result set, use the
FETCH FIRST clause. For example:
SELECT * FROM staff FETCH FIRST 10 ROWS ONLY
Retrieve specific columns from a table by specifying a select list of column names separated by commas. For example:
SELECT name, salary FROM staff
DISTINCT clause to eliminate
duplicate rows in a result set. For example:
SELECT DISTINCT dept, job FROM staff
AS clause to assign a meaningful
name to an expression or an item in the select list. For example:
SELECT name, salary + comm AS pay FROM staff
AS clause, the derived column
would have been named 2, indicating that it is the second column in
the result set.
Using the WHERE clause and predicates to limit the amount of data returned by a query
WHERE clause to select specific rows
from a table or view by specifying one or more selection criteria, or
search conditions. A search condition consists of one or more
predicates. A predicate specifies something about a row that is either
true or false (see The parts of speech of
SQL). When building search conditions, be sure to:
- Apply arithmetic operations only to numeric data types
- Make comparisons only among compatible data types
- Enclose character values within single quotation marks
- Specify character values exactly as they appear in the database
Let's look at some examples.
- Find the names of staff members whose salaries are greater than
"SELECT name, salary FROM staff WHERE salary > 20000"
Enclosing the statement within double quotation marks keeps your operating system from misinterpreting special characters, such as * or >; the greater-than symbol could be interpreted as an output redirection request.
- List the name, job title, and salary of staff members who are not
managers and whose salary is greater than $20,000:
"SELECT name, job, salary FROM staff WHERE job <> 'Mgr' AND salary > 20000"
- Find all names that start with the letter S:
SELECT name FROM staff WHERE name LIKE 'S%'
In this example, the percent sign (%) is a wild card character that represents a string of zero or more characters.
A subquery is a
SELECT statement that
appears within the
WHERE clause of a main
query and feeds its result set to that
WHERE clause. For example:
"SELECT lastname FROM employee WHERE lastname IN (SELECT sales_person FROM sales WHERE sales_date < '01/01/1996')"
A correlation name is defined in the
FROM clause of a query and can serve as a
convenient short name for a table. Correlation names also eliminate
ambiguous references to identical column names from different tables.
"SELECT e.salary FROM employee e WHERE e.salary < (SELECT AVG(s.salary) FROM staff s)"
Using the ORDER BY clause to sort results
ORDER BY clause to sort the result
set by values in one or more columns. The column names that are
specified in the
ORDER BY clause do not
have to be specified in the select list. For example:
"SELECT name, salary FROM staff WHERE salary > 20000 ORDER BY salary"
Sort the result set in descending order by specifying
DESC in the
ORDER BY clause:
ORDER BY salary DESC
Using joins to retrieve data from more than one table
A join is a query that combines data from two or more tables. It is often necessary to select information from two or more tables because required data is often distributed. A join adds columns to the result set. For example, a full join of two three-column tables produces a result set with six columns.
The simplest join is one in which there are no specified conditions. For example:
SELECT deptnumb, deptname, manager, id, name, dept, job FROM org, staff
This statement returns all combinations of rows from the ORG table and the STAFF table. The first three columns come from the ORG tables, and the last four columns come from the STAFF table. Such a result set (the cross product of the two tables) is not very useful. What is needed is a join condition to refine the result set. For example, here is a query that is designed to identify staff members who are managers:
SELECT deptnumb, deptname, id AS manager_id, name AS manager FROM org, staff WHERE manager = id ORDER BY deptnumb
And here is a partial result set returned by this query:
Identifying staff members
The statement you looked at in the last section is an example of an
inner join. Inner joins return only rows from the cross product
that meet the join condition. If a row exists in one table but not the
other, it is not included in the result set. To explicitly specify an
inner join, rewrite the previous query with an
INNER JOIN operator in the
... FROM org INNER JOIN staff ON manager = id ...
ON specifies the join conditions
for the tables being joined. DeptNumb and DeptName are columns in the
ORG table, and Manager_ID and Manager are based on columns (ID and
Name) in the STAFF table. The result set for the inner join consists
of rows that have matching values for the Manager and ID columns in
the left table (ORG) and the right table (STAFF),
respectively. (When you perform a join on two tables, you arbitrarily
designate one table to be the left table and the other to be the
Outer joins return rows that are generated by an inner join operation, plus rows that would not be returned by the inner join operation. There are three types of outer joins:
- A left outer join includes the inner join plus the rows
from the left table that are not returned by the inner
join. This type of join uses the
LEFT OUTER JOIN(or
LEFT JOIN) operator in the
- A right outer join includes the inner join plus the
rows from the right table that are not returned by the
inner join. This type of join uses the
RIGHT OUTER JOIN(or
RIGHT JOIN) operator in the
- A full outer join includes the inner join plus the
rows from both the left table and the right table that are
not returned by the inner join. This type of join uses the
FULL OUTER JOIN(or
FULL JOIN) operator in the
Construct more complex queries to answer more difficult questions. The following query is designed to generate a list of employees who are responsible for projects, identifying those employees who are also managers by listing the departments that they manage:
SELECT empno, deptname, projname FROM (employee LEFT OUTER JOIN project ON respemp = empno) LEFT OUTER JOIN department ON mgrno = empno
The first outer join gets the name of any project for which the employee is responsible; this outer join is enclosed by parentheses and is resolved first. The second outer join gets the name of the employee's department if that employee is a manager.
Using set operators to combine two or more queries into a single query
Combine two or more queries into a single query by using the
INTERSECT set operators. Set
operators process the results of the queries, eliminate
duplicates, and return the final result set.
UNIONset operator generates a result table by combining two or more other result tables.
EXCEPTset operator generates a result table by including all rows that are returned by the first query, but not by the second or any subsequent queries.
INTERSECTset operator generates a result table by including only rows that are returned by all the queries.
Following is an example of a query that makes use of the
UNION set operator. The same query could
EXCEPT or the
INTERSECT set operator by substituting the
appropriate keyword for
"SELECT sales_person FROM sales WHERE region = 'Ontario-South' UNION SELECT sales_person FROM sales WHERE sales > 3"
Using the GROUP BY clause to summarize results
GROUP BY clause to organize rows in
a result set. Each group is represented by a single row in the result
set. For example:
SELECT sales_date, MAX(sales) AS max_sales FROM sales GROUP BY sales_date
This statement returns a list of sales dates from the SALES table. The
SALES table in the SAMPLE database contains sales data, including the
number of successful transactions by a particular sales person on a
particular date. There is typically more than one record per date. The
GROUP BY clause groups the data by sales
date, and the
MAX function in this example
returns the maximum number of sales recorded for each sales date.
A different flavor of the
GROUP BY clause
includes the specification of the
GROUPING SETS clause. Grouping sets
can be used to analyze data at different levels of aggregation in a
single pass. For example:
SELECT YEAR(sales_date) AS year, region, SUM(sales) AS tot_sales FROM sales GROUP BY GROUPING SETS (YEAR(sales_date), region, () )
YEAR function is used to return
the year portion of date values, and the
SUM function is used to return the total in
each set of grouped sales figures. The grouping sets list
specifies how the data is to be grouped, or aggregated. A pair
of empty parentheses is added to the grouping sets list to get a grand
total in the result set. The statement returns the following:
Result of Grouping Sets command
A statement that is almost identical to the previous one, but that
ROLLUP clause, or the
CUBE clause instead of the
GROUPING SETS clause, returns a result set
that provides a more detailed perspective on the data. It might
provide summaries by location or time.
HAVING clause is often used with a
GROUP BY clause to retrieve results for
groups that satisfy only a specific condition. A
HAVING clause can contain one or more
predicates that compare some property of the group with another
property of the group or a constant. For example:
"SELECT sales_person, SUM(sales) AS total_sales FROM sales GROUP BY sales_person HAVING SUM(sales) > 25"
This statement returns a list of salespeople whose sales totals exceed 25.
Using the INSERT statement to add new rows to tables or views
INSERT statement is used to add new rows
to a table or a view. Inserting a row into a view also inserts the row
into the table on which the view is based.
- Use a
VALUESclause to specify column data for one or more rows. For example:
INSERT INTO staff VALUES (1212,'Cerny',20,'Sales',3,90000.00,30000.00) INSERT INTO staff VALUES (1213,'Wolfrum',20,'Sales',2,90000.00,10000.00)
Or the equivalent:
INSERT INTO staff (id, name, dept, job, years, salary, comm) VALUES (1212,'Cerny',20,'Sales',3,90000.00,30000.00), (1213,'Wolfrum',20,'Sales',2,90000.00,10000.00)
- Specify a fullselect to identify data that is to be copied from
other tables or views. A fullselect is a statement that
generates a result table. For example:
CREATE TABLE pers LIKE staff INSERT INTO pers SELECT id, name, dept, job, years, salary, comm FROM staff WHERE dept = 38
Using the UPDATE statement to change data in tables or views
UPDATE statement is used to change the
data in a table or a view. Change the value of one or more columns for
each row that satisfies the conditions specified by a
WHERE clause. For example:
UPDATE staff SET dept = 51, salary = 70000 WHERE id = 750
Or the equivalent:
UPDATE staff SET (dept, salary) = (51, 70000) WHERE id = 750
If you don't specify a
WHERE clause, DB2
updates each row in the table or view!
Using the DELETE statement to get rid of data
DELETE statement is used to delete
entire rows of data from a table. Delete each row that satisfies the
conditions specified by a
WHERE clause. For
DELETE FROM staff WHERE id IN (1212, 1213)
If you don't specify a
WHERE clause, DB2
deletes all the rows in the table or view!
Using the MERGE statement to combine conditional update, insert, or delete operations
MERGE statement updates a target table
or updatable view using data from a source table. During a single
operation, rows in the target that match the source can be updated or
deleted, and rows that do not exist in the target can be inserted.
For example, consider the EMPLOYEE table to be the target table that
contains up-to-date information about the employees of a large
company. Branch offices handle updates to local employee records by
maintaining their own version of the EMPLOYEE table called MY_EMP. The
MERGE statement can be used to update the
EMPLOYEE table with information that is contained in a MY_EMP table,
which is the source table for the merge operation.
The following statement inserts a row for new employee number 000015 into the MY_EMP table.
INSERT INTO my_emp (empno, firstnme, midinit, lastname, workdept, phoneno, hiredate, job, edlevel, sex, birthdate, salary) VALUES ('000015', 'MARIO', 'M', 'MALFA', 'A00', '6669', '05/05/2000', 'ANALYST', 15, 'M', '04/02/1973', 59000.00)
And the following statement inserts updated salary data for existing employee number 000010 into the MY_EMP table.
INSERT INTO my_emp (empno, firstnme, midinit, lastname, edlevel, salary) VALUES ('000010', 'CHRISTINE', 'I', 'HAAS', 18, 66600.00)
At this point, the inserted data exists only in the MY_EMP table
because it has not yet been merged with the EMPLOYEE table. Following
MERGE statement that takes the
contents of the MY_EMP table and integrates them with the EMPLOYEE
MERGE INTO employee AS e USING (SELECT empno, firstnme, midinit, lastname, workdept, phoneno, hiredate, job, edlevel, sex, birthdate, salary FROM my_emp) AS m ON e.empno = m.empno WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET (salary) = (m.salary) WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT (empno, firstnme, midinit, lastname, workdept, phoneno, hiredate, job, edlevel, sex, birthdate, salary) VALUES (m.empno, m.firstnme, m.midinit, m.lastname, m.workdept, m.phoneno, m.hiredate, m.job, m.edlevel, m.sex, m.birthdate, m.salary)
Correlation names have been assigned to both the source and the target table to avoid ambiguous table references in the search condition. The statement identifies the columns in the MY_EMP table that are to be considered. The statement also specifies the actions that are to be taken when a row in the MY_EMP table is found to have a match in the EMPLOYEE table, or when a row does not have a match.
The following query executed against the EMPLOYEE table now returns a record for employee 000015:
SELECT * FROM employee WHERE empno = '000015'
And the following query returns the record for employee 000010 with an updated value for the SALARY column.
SELECT * FROM employee WHERE empno = '000010'
Using the data-change-table-reference clause to retrieve intermediate result sets in the same unit of work
Suppose you want to give employee 000220 a 7% raise and retrieve her
old salary, both in the same unit of work (UOW). You could accomplish
this by using a
clause, which is part of the
FROM clause in
an SQL statement.
SELECT salary FROM OLD TABLE ( UPDATE employee SET salary = salary * 1.07 WHERE empno = '000220' ); SALARY ----------- 29840.00 1 record(s) selected.
Columns in the target of the data-change operation (insert, update, or
delete) become the columns of the intermediate result table, and can
be referenced by name (in this case, Salary) in the select list of the
query. The keywords
OLD TABLE specify that
the intermediate result table is to contain values that precede
the data-change operation. The keywords
NEW TABLE specify that the intermediate
result table is to contain values that immediately follow the
data-change operation (before referential integrity evaluation and the
firing of after triggers has taken place). The keywords
FINAL TABLE specify that the intermediate
result table is to contain values that follow the data-change
operation, referential integrity evaluation, and the firing of after
Suppose you have a CUSTOMERS table that is defined as follows:
CREATE TABLE customers ( cust_id INTEGER GENERATED ALWAYS AS IDENTITY ( START WITH 10001 ), cust_name VARCHAR(12), PRIMARY KEY (cust_id) );
The primary key for this table, Cust_ID, is an automatically generated
identity column. You can use a
data-change-table-reference clause to
retrieve the generated identity column value that is being used as a
SELECT * FROM FINAL TABLE ( INSERT INTO customers (cust_name) VALUES ('Lamarr') ); CUST_ID CUST_NAME ----------- ------------ 10001 Lamarr 1 record(s) selected.
The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements and transaction boundaries
Units of work and savepoints
A unit of work (UOW), also known as a transaction, is a recoverable sequence of operations within an application process. The classic example of a UOW is a simple bank transaction to transfer funds from one account to another. There is an inconsistency -- immediately after the application subtracts an amount of money from one account -- that is resolved after an equal amount of money is added to the second account. When these changes have been committed, they become available to other applications.
A UOW starts implicitly when the first SQL statement within an
application process is issued against the database. All subsequent
reads and writes by the same application process are considered part
of the same UOW. The application ends the UOW by issuing either a
COMMIT or a
ROLLBACK statement, whichever is
COMMIT statement makes all
changes made within the UOW permanent, whereas the
ROLLBACK statement reverses those changes.
If the application ends normally without an explicit
ROLLBACK statement, the UOW is
automatically committed. If the application ends abnormally before the
end of a UOW, that unit of work is automatically rolled back.
A savepoint lets you selectively roll back a subset of actions that make up a UOW without losing the entire transaction. You can nest savepoints and have several savepoint levels active at the same time; this allows your application to roll back to a specific savepoint, as necessary. Suppose you have three savepoints (A, B, and C) defined within a particular UOW:
do some work; savepoint A; do some more work; savepoint B; do even more work; savepoint C; wrap it up; roll back to savepoint B;
The rollback to savepoint B automatically releases savepoint C, but savepoints A and B remain active.
For more information about savepoint levels and a detailed example illustrating DB2's savepoint support, see Resources.
SQL procedures and user-defined functions
Creating and calling an SQL procedure
An SQL procedure is a stored procedure whose body is written in SQL. The body contains the logic of the SQL procedure. It can include variable declarations, condition handling, flow-of-control statements, and DML. Multiple SQL statements can be specified within a compound statement, which groups several statements together into an executable block.
An SQL procedure is created when you successfully invoke a
CREATE PROCEDURE (SQL) statement, which
defines the SQL procedure with an application server. SQL procedures
are a handy way to define more complex queries or tasks that can be
called whenever they are needed.
An easy way to create an SQL procedure is to code the
CREATE PROCEDURE (SQL) statement in a
command line processor (CLP) script. For example, if the statement
shown below were in a file called
createSQLproc.db2, that file could be
executed to create the SQL procedure:
- Connect to the SAMPLE database.
- Issue the following command:
db2 -td@ -vf createSQLproc.db2
db2 command specifies the
-td option flag, which tells the command
line processor to define and to use
the statement termination character (because the semicolon is already
being used as a statement termination character inside the procedure
-v option flag, which tells the
command line processor to echo command text to standard output; and
-f option flag, which tells the command
line processor to read command input from the specified file instead
of from standard input.
CREATE PROCEDURE sales_status (IN quota INTEGER, OUT sql_state CHAR(5)) DYNAMIC RESULT SETS 1 LANGUAGE SQL BEGIN DECLARE SQLSTATE CHAR(5); DECLARE rs CURSOR WITH RETURN FOR SELECT sales_person, SUM(sales) AS total_sales FROM sales GROUP BY sales_person HAVING SUM(sales) > quota; OPEN rs; SET sql_state = SQLSTATE; END @
This procedure, called SALES_STATUS, accepts an input parameter called
quota and returns an output parameter called
sql_state. The procedure body consists of a single
SELECT statement that returns the name and
the total sales figures for each salesperson whose total sales exceed
the specified quota.
Most SQL procedures accept at least one input parameter. In our
example, the input parameter contains a value (quota) that is
used in the
SELECT statement contained in
the procedure body.
Many SQL procedures return at least one output parameter. Our example
includes an output parameter (sql_state) that is used to report
the success or failure of the SQL procedure. DB2 returns an
SQLSTATE value in response to conditions
that could be the result of an SQL statement. Because the returned
SQLSTATE value pertains to the last SQL
statement issued in the procedure body, and accessing the values
alters the subsequent values of these variables (because an SQL
statement is used to access them), the
SQLSTATE value should be assigned to and
returned through a locally defined variable (such as the
sql_state variable in our example).
The parameter list for an SQL procedure can specify zero or more parameters, each of which can be one of three possible types:
INparameters pass an input value to an SQL procedure; this value cannot be modified within the body of the procedure.
OUTparameters return an output value from an SQL procedure.
INOUTparameters pass an input value to an SQL procedure and return an output value from the procedure.
SQL procedures can return zero or more result sets. In our example, the SALES_STATUS procedure returns one result set. This has been done by:
- Declaring the number of result sets that the SQL procedure
returns in the
DYNAMIC RESULT SETSclause.
- Declaring a cursor in the procedure body (using the
WITH RETURN FORclause) for each result set that is returned. A cursor is a named control structure that is used by an application program to point to a specific row within an ordered set of rows. A cursor is used to retrieve rows from a set.
- Opening the cursor for each result set that is returned.
- Leaving the cursor(s) open when the SQL procedure returns.
Variables must be declared at the beginning of the SQL procedure body. To declare a variable, assign a unique identifier to and specify an SQL data type for the variable and, optionally, assign an initial value to the variable.
SET clause in our sample SQL procedure
is an example of a flow-of-control clause. The following
flow-of-control statements, structures, and clauses can be used for
conditional processing within an SQL procedure body:
CASEstructure selects an execution path based on the evaluation of one or more conditions.
FORstructure executes a block of code for each row of a table.
GET DIAGNOSTICSstatement returns information about the previous SQL statement into an SQL variable.
GOTOstatement transfers control to a labeled block (a section of one or more statements identified by a unique SQL name followed by a colon).
IFstructure selects an execution path based on the evaluation of conditions. The
ELSEclauses enable you to branch or to specify a default action if the other conditions are false.
ITERATEclause passes the flow of control to the beginning of a labeled loop.
LEAVEclause transfers program control out of a loop or block of code.
LOOPclause executes a block of code multiple times until a
GOTOstatement transfers control outside of the loop.
REPEATclause executes a block of code until a specified search condition returns true.
RETURNclause returns control from the SQL procedure to the caller.
SETclause assigns a value to an output parameter or SQL variable.
WHILEclause repeatedly executes a block of code while a specified condition is true.
To successfully create SQL procedures, you must have installed the DB2 Application Development Client on the database server. (See the first tutorial in this series for more on the Application Development Client.) The dependency on a C compiler to create SQL procedures was eliminated in DB2 Universal Database Version 8. All of the operations that were dependent on a C compiler are now performed by DB2-generated byte code that is hosted in a virtual machine. For more information about this enhancement, see Resources.
Use the SQL
CALL statement to call SQL
procedures from the DB2 command line. The procedure being called must
be defined in the system catalog. Client applications written in any
supported language can call SQL procedures. To call the SQL procedure
SALES_STATUS, perform the following steps:
- Connect to the SAMPLE database.
- Issue the following statement:
db2 CALL sales_status (25, ?)
Because parentheses have special meaning to the command shell
on UNIX-based systems, on those systems they must be preceded
with a backslash (
\) character or
be enclosed by double quotation marks:
db2 "CALL sales_status (25, ?)"
Do not include double quotation marks if you are using the
command line processor (CLP) in interactive input mode,
characterized by the
In this example, a value of 25 for the input parameter quota is passed to the SQL procedure, as well as a question mark (?) place-holder for the output parameter sql_state. The procedure returns the name and the total sales figures for each salesperson whose total sales exceed the specified quota (25). The following is sample output returned by this statement:
SQL_STATE: 00000 SALES_PERSON TOTAL_SALES GOUNOT 50 LEE 91 "SALES_STATUS" RETURN_STATUS: "0"
Creating and using SQL user-defined functions
Create user-defined functions to extend the set of built-in DB2 functions. For example, create functions that evaluate complex mathematical expressions or manipulate strings, and then reference these functions in SQL statements like you would any existing built-in function.
Suppose that you needed a function that returns the area of a circle when the radius of that circle is specified as an argument to the function. Such a function is not available as a built-in DB2 function, but you could create a user-defined SQL scalar function to perform this task and reference the function wherever scalar functions are supported within an SQL statement.
CREATE FUNCTION ca (r DOUBLE) RETURNS DOUBLE LANGUAGE SQL CONTAINS SQL NO EXTERNAL ACTION DETERMINISTIC RETURN 3.14159 * (r * r);
NO EXTERNAL ACTION clause specifies
that the function does not take any action that changes the state of
an object that the database manager does not manage. The
DETERMINISTIC keyword specifies that the
function always returns the same result for a given argument value.
This information is used during query optimization. A convenient way
to execute the function is to reference it in a query. In the
following example, the query is executed (arbitrarily) against the
SYSIBM.SYSDUMMY1 catalog view, which only
has one row:
db2 SELECT ca(96.8) AS area FROM sysibm.sysdummy1 AREA ------------------------ +2.94374522816000E+004 1 record(s) selected.
You can also create a user-defined table function, which takes
zero or more input arguments and returns data as a table. A table
function can only be used in the
clause of an SQL statement.
Suppose that you needed a function that returns the names and employee numbers of all employees that hold a specific job, with the title of that job specified as an argument to the function. The following is an example of a table function that performs this task:
CREATE FUNCTION jobemployees (job VARCHAR(8)) RETURNS TABLE ( empno CHAR(6), firstname VARCHAR(12), lastname VARCHAR(15) ) LANGUAGE SQL READS SQL DATA NO EXTERNAL ACTION DETERMINISTIC RETURN SELECT empno, firstnme, lastname FROM employee WHERE employee.job = jobemployees.job;
The following query references the new table function in the
FROM clause and passes the job title
'CLERK' as the argument to the function. A correlation name,
introduced by the keyword
AS, is required
by the syntax:
db2 SELECT * FROM TABLE(jobemployees('CLERK')) AS clerk EMPNO FIRSTNAME LASTNAME ------ ------------ --------------- 000120 SEAN O'CONNELL 000230 JAMES JEFFERSON 000240 SALVATORE MARINO 000250 DANIEL SMITH 000260 SYBIL JOHNSON 000270 MARIA PEREZ 6 record(s) selected.
This tutorial was designed to introduce you to Structured Query Language (SQL) and to some of the ways that DB2 9 uses SQL to manipulate data in a relational database. It also covered the fundamentals of SQL, including SQL language elements, Data Manipulation Language (DML), SQL procedures, and user-defined functions. Part 5: Working with DB2 objects, which discusses data types, tables, views, and indexes as defined by DB2, will help you understand how to create and use them.
To keep an eye on this series, bookmark the series page, DB2 9 DBA exam 730 prep tutorials.
- Check out the other parts of the DB2 9 Fundamentals exam 730 prep tutorial series.
- Certification exam site. Click the exam number to see more information about Exams 730 and 731.
- DB2 9 overview. Find information about the new data server that includes patented pureXML technology.
- DB2 XML evaluation guide: A step-by-step introduction to the XML storage and query capabilities of DB2 9
- Find additional information about DB2 9 and SQL from the DB2 Information Center.
- An IBM DB2 Universal Database "Stinger" Feature Preview: Enhanced Savepoints offers more information on savepoints.
- What's New for SQL PL in the IBM DB2 Universal Database "Stinger" Release explains the DB2 features that reduce the dependency on a C compiler to create SQL procedures.
- Visit the developerWorks DBA Central zone to read articles and tutorials and connect to other resources to expand your database administration skills.
- Check out the developerWorks DB2 basics series, a group of articles geared toward beginning users.
Get products and technologies
- A trial version of DB2 9 is available for free download.
- Download DB2 Express-C, a no-charge version of DB2 Express Edition for the community that offers the same core data features as DB2 Express Edition and provides a solid base to build and deploy applications.
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