The licensing and packaging information provided in this article is for marketing and reference purposes only. For full details on DB2 packaging and DB2 license rights and obligations, please consult the DB2 license agreements.
Information management software is at the core of enterprise computing. Companies need access to a wide range of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured information. The Smarter Planet revolution makes continuous availability of information a necessity. As transaction, business intelligence, business performance management, and content management applications converge, companies must integrate their business operations and processes thereby transforming their operations to the Smarter Planet paradigm.
The IBM Information Management software portfolio provides the foundation to provide information on demand through a rich set of services. These services can be used to support and query data (structured, semi-structured, and unstructured), integrate data, provide data entity resolution, master data management, federation, and content management, as well as a host of rich run-time analytic capabilities for data in-motion and data at-rest. When you take into account the complete set of these services, collectively they are referred to as Information as a Service. IBM offers a rich framework of industry-centric and purpose-built best practices built on these core services allowing companies to systematically transform their data assets into core strategic strengths for the business; collectively these practices are known as the Information Agenda.
At the heart of the Information Management portfolio is the distributed (Linux, UNIX, and Windows) DB2 database server which is the focus of this article. This article only describes the DB2 version running on distributed platforms. For information about the entire DB2 portfolio, see the Information Management Software Web site or each product's respective Web site: DB2 for z/OS or DB2 for i.
The DB2 product is also at the heart of both InfoSphere Warehouse and the IBM Smart Analytics System; in fact, all of these products (even the small and mid-market-targeted ones) are built on DB2 Enterprise Edition which is covered in this article. These products are not covered in this article because they have services which extend well beyond the core DB2 database which is the focus of this article.
It's easy to arrive at the decision to use the DB2 product; however, there are different DB2 editions (and respective licensing options) that are well suited for different parts of the marketplace.
For each DB2 version, there is an article like this one that is designed to help you decide which distributed DB2 edition you want to use to power up your business. As interim changes impact the version release over time, this article morphs into a reference that details licensing and product changes on a marginal basis. For this reason, you should note the publication date and version point release when reading this article. The description of an edition is the most up-to-date with respect to features, licensing rules, and so on. Below each edition description is often a change log that allows you to see the changes within a release cycle. For example, this article covers DB2 10.1, which was released on April 30, 2012. As new Fix Packs become available, any packaging or licensing changes will be reflected in this article, but a section will be added to clearly delineate the changes between the generally available version of DB2 10.1 and subsequent Fix Packs.
In the article, the term server represents either the physical server where the DB2 software is running, or an IBM price-supported virtualization session (such as VMWare, XEN, LPAR, and so on) unless otherwise noted.
When talking with customers, we often get asked a lot of high availability licensing questions, or feature comparisons between the different editions of DB2. For details on these topics and more, some of the other following articles may be helpful:
- "Licensing distributed DB2 servers in a high availability configuration"
- "Compare the distributed DB2 database servers" (Uses a chart to compare the distributed DB2 servers on a feature-by-feature basis.)
- "DB2 and IBM's Processor Value Unit (PVU) pricing"
When choosing a DB2 edition to service your workload, it's important to know that each DB2 edition has the same code base across all the distributed platforms. DB2's support for Linux extends across all of the IBM servers: POWER, System z®, and System x®: the DB2 on all of these platforms is the distributed version too. For example, DB2 for Linux on System z is the same code base and licensed the same way as DB2 on an Intel or AMD-based workstation. This means that DB2 Connect is not required to access DB2 for Linux on System z data even though the copy of DB2 resides on a System z server. (Read that sentence twice - if you were connecting to a DB2 for z/OS database on this System z server, you would require DB2 Connect; the difference here is that DB2 for Linux running on a System z Integrated Facility for Linux (IFL) is the distributed version of DB2.)
A common code base offers portability and assurances that if you ever need to scale your DB2 solution, you can do so seamlessly without migration concerns or efforts; and since the SQL API within the DB2 family is about 95% common, movement between the DB2 family members is just as easy too. To further enhance the DB2 family value proposition, all DB2 editions include federation across the entire IBM relational database portfolio (DB2 Advanced Enterprise Edition includes the ability to federate to Oracle databases too with additional software). Federation allows you to write a single SQL statement that transparently joins data from DB2 on Windows, or DB2 for z/OS, or Informix - any supported combination you can think of. What's more, you can add IBM InfoSphere Information Server software to solve cross-vendor information integration problems by extending the DB2 SQL API with transparent and optimized access to Hadoop, non-IBM relational databases (such as Oracle, SQL Server, and others), and materialize non-relational data sources (like XML streams, spreadsheets, message queues, VSAM, IMS, and so on) as relational tables, thereby truly creating a corporate-wide common data model.
There is compatibility beyond the SQL API too. For example, there's a common Web Services framework that allows you to point-and-click your business logic into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) framework. In fact, this framework, called IBM Data Web Services, includes support for Informix servers and can even be used for back-level versions of Informix or DB2 (on any platform, including i and z/OS).
Not to sound like an infomercial, but there's more cross-IBM Data Server stuff that's packed into every edition of DB2. For example, all IBM relational databases share a common API to instrument the SQL. This means that by deploying a single set of client drivers, you can connect to any IBM data server. For example, the JDBC driver that ships with DB2 for z/OS is the same code as DB2 for Windows, Linux, and UNIX. When you consider that billions of dollars per hour, every day, depend on this driver, you know you've got a rich and robust driver for your applications.
The DB2 10.1 release also builds on the initial integrated data management tool set (the de facto DB2 management tool that you can freely download) which serves as a segue into the IBM requirements to retirement data lifecycle management discipline and toolset under the InfoSphere Optim brand. The absence of the DB2 moniker is not accidental; the InfoSphere Optim tools portfolio provides a rich tooling platform that spans the entire spectrum of the application lifecycle (design, develop, deploy, operate, optimize, and govern) for more than just IBM relational databases. This saves businesses money as personnel skills investment can be dynamically moved from problem area to problem area, breaking free of costly database skill stove pipes. Truly, DB2 enables in-place access to data wherever it may reside.
In addition, tooling for application development and management (like Microsoft Visual Studio and Zend core integration) are cross-IBM database family as well. InfoSphere Optim pureQuery, IBM Data Studio, and more are all enabled for more than just IBM databases (such as Oracle). More than ever, across the IBM DB2 family (and in many cases Informix too) you've got skill reuse when it comes to application development, deployment, management, and more. You actually get many of these tools free (such as IBM Data Studio) with your DB2 license.
Now consider that DB2 10.1 provides native support for the most commonly used Oracle Database PL/SQL syntax, data types, and more. In fact, most organizations report that 98% of their PL/SQL code runs on DB2 10.1 without application changes; what's more, they've claimed that moving their applications to DB2 from the Oracle Database happened in days or weeks as opposed to months or years. When you take all this into account, you can see how DB2 truly lets you break free of skyrocketing costs in an environment where cost containment is a top priority.
If you ever decide to change your strategic direction with respect to a hardware architecture (for example, from an Intel-based architecture to a POWER one), operating system (like moving from Linux to Windows or vice-versa), or programming architecture (like .NET to Java or vice-versa), you can count on the fact that DB2 will be there. If you've been left without choice and are forced to migrate as a result of Oracle and Microsoft's dropping of HP Itanium support, DB2 is there for you too. Quite simply, it's all about choice, and DB2 is literally the only database in the world that really gives you the breadth and depth of an information platform tailored to your environment. Figure 1 shows an architectural view of DB2 10.1 across its supported distributed platforms.
Figure 1. DB2 works across supported distributed platforms due to its common code base
The different editions of DB2 are shown in Figure 2. You can assume that each function, feature, and benefit of an edition shown at the bottom of Figure 2 is included in each subsequent edition as you move up the 'edition chain.' (Note that we consider DB2 Express-C to be a package as opposed to an edition.)
Figure 2. The distributed DB2 10.1 product line
Over half a decade ago, IBM took the database market by storm and announced a special free DB2 server package called DB2 Express-C. You'll note that we refer to this as a package, as it's not an 'official' edition of DB2. DB2 Express-C was designed for the partner and development communities, but as you get to know this package, you'll start to realize it has applicability almost anywhere. This contrasts to some competitor free Express offerings that impose strict limits not just on database size (for which DB2 Express-C has no limit), but also for things like autonomics, automated maintenance, the memory bit model, and more. As you investigate this DB2 package, you will become pleasantly surprised. DB2 Express-C is perfect for developers and small and medium deployments, academic communities, and more.
The major features that are not included in DB2 Express-C when compared to DB2 editions are as follows.
- You can't purchase add-on feature options which can be used with other
editions to provide a varying array of extended services. For example,
you can't buy the Storage Optimization Feature option which provides
compression services for tables, temporary tables, indexes, the XML
XDA area, and more.
- You can't cluster two DB2 Express-C data servers together for high
availability using clustering software such as PowerHA SystemMirror,
SteelEye, or the built-in clustering services that are part of the
other DB2 editions. If you need to set up a database in a highly
available environment, you must minimally license DB2 Express. In
addition, HADR, the built-in DB2 clustering technology (provided by
IBM Tivoli System Automation for Multi-platforms – TSA MP), advanced
copy servers, and online table reorganization, are not included and
cannot be purchased with DB2 Express-C.
- You can't use replication services.
- You can't purchase the award winning 24x7 IBM Passport Advantage
support model available with purchasable DB2 editions. This is perhaps
one of the biggest restrictions with DB2 Express-C (in addition to the
inability to cluster these servers for high availability). The DB2
Express-C support model lies within the strength of its community.
This community is made up of some of the world's most experienced DBAs
from the world's largest companies (and smaller ones too) and a legion
of DB2 developers and engineers monitoring a forum of questions that
you can tap into for DB2 Express-C help, advice, and support (it kind of resembles
the open-source community methodology). To help nurture and grow this
community, strong practitioner resources are available on Web sites
- DB2 Express-C is only available at the current version. When a new version of DB2 Express-C is released, older versions are no longer available for download. This restriction requires special attention if you are using ISV software that is certified for a specific release level. For example, when DB2 Express-C 10.1 became generally available, DB2 Express-C 9.7 was removed for download.
If you want to leverage any of the features listed previously, you need to minimally purchase a for-fee edition of DB2; for example, the DB2 Express 12 month contract Fixed Term License (FTL) option, described later in this article, gives you all of the previous features and more at a very reasonable cost.
One important DB2 Express-C feature set, Oracle Database compatibility support (which is also included for free with all editions of DB2) makes it much easier to migrate an application written for the Oracle database to DB2 because it provides the locking, PL/SQL, weak data type and other behaviors that those applications expect. In addition, the compatibility features make Oracle developers and QA professionals immediately productive with DB2 because they can reuse their Oracle database skills and test suites with DB2. So if you're an Oracle database developer, you can now add DB2 to your resume too.
DB2 Express-C 10.1 delivers even more value with the addition of the all new Time Travel Query capability (which is also included in DB2 Express and all other DB2 editions as well). With this new functionality, you can now issue SQL queries that show you what your data looked like at a particular point in time. Not only does Time Travel Query make it easy to respond to audits and other historical inquiries, but it also means that application developers with a need for such logic can save time by letting DB2 to do the work.
The nice thing about DB2 Express-C is that you'll find a lot of things missing - from a limits perspective, such as no database size limits, no automated management or tooling limits, no memory model limits (you can use a 64-bit memory model), and more - you're just using DB2. This just isn't the case when you look beneath the marketing veneer of some competitor "Express" offerings; however, that's outside the scope of this article.
DB2 Express-C 10.1 is available for servers running Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, or Solaris (x64) operating systems. A complete list of supported platforms is available at the IBM DB2 Express-C download site.
Developers love DB2 Express-C because it allows them to develop and deploy applications free of charge. ISVs love DB2 Express-C because it allows them to develop, deploy, and distribute DB2 free as part of their packaged application. And remember, since DB2 Express-C is DB2, it means that you can deploy these applications on any edition of DB2 and even move them to DB2 for z/OS without application changes (assuming you write your applications to the 95+% common SQL API set for the DB2 family).
In the academia world, educators have an opportunity to extend the value of the IBM Academic Initiative program (see the call-out box in this article) which offers them access to DB2 technology for free by having their students use DB2 Express-C without being tied to specific course curriculum. These DB2 practitioners are then able to apply their trade with a data server that is free to build, deploy, and distribute. DB2 Express-C is so compelling it once received the prestigious VARBusiness's Best of the Midmarket award. Want to test drive DB2 Express-C for yourself? Download a copy today.
DB2 Express-C is free to build, deploy, and distribute. Consequently there are no license fees associated with this DB2 package. The code is, however, optimized such that it throttles the DB2 engine to a maximum of 2 cores of processing power for the database on any sized server or virtualization session. You must also restrict DB2 10.1’s use of memory to 4 GB of memory per server or virtualization session. For example, if you installed DB2 Express-C on a server that had 8 VMWare sessions that were each configured with 4 cores and 4 GB of RAM, each copy of DB2 Express-C would only schedule work on 2 cores and only use the full 4 GB of RAM in each virtualization session. However, you could not install a copy of DB2 Express-C in a VMWare session with 6 GB of RAM as that exceeds the 4 GB limit, unless you manually configured DB2 to not use more than 4 GB of memory.
In DB2 9.7, you were restricted to 2 GB of RAM per server or virtualization session. Starting with DB2 10.1, that limit is now increased to 4 GB.
DB2 Express-C is useful for a wide array of different applications and projects that don't require more than 2 cores of CPU and 4 GB of RAM. Use it to learn DB2, develop DB2 applications, and even deploy production applications (depending on your requirements).
1C is an icon of the booming Russian economy and is the second largest provider of enterprise application software (EAS) by revenue in Russia. Although they make a really cool flight simulator game, they are mostly known for their accounting and financial management software. 1C leverages all the power of DB2 Express-C, and there's even a setting in DB2 (automatically set by the 1C installation program) that runs the DB2 engine in "1C-mode". Arktos is an HVAC equipment manufacturer. Arktos wanted to improve overall responsiveness of their systems, automate database backups, and reduce recovery times it would encounter in case of failures. They hired a 1C business partner, BIT, and migrated to 1C:Enterprise running on DB2 Express-C. Arktos’ Oleg Illyin notes that “The installation of the new system allowed us to accelerate most of our business processes which led to significant reduction in time required to complete most business transactions – 5 to 10 times on the average. For example, the time required to process financial month close transactions was reduced from 6 hours to 10-11 minutes. With the help of the database [DB2 Express-C] we now have an automated, fast, and reliable process for recovering data and restoring systems in case of failure of the information system." When the second largest EAS vendor in Russia trusts their critical applications to a free package of DB2, and a 1C customer’s application wait time was reduced by about 300 minutes to 11 minutes, and that same vendor offers you flight simulator software too: now that’s cool!
DB2 Express Edition (DB2 Express) is the entry level, fully supported DB2 server that is a specially tailored low cost, full feature, industrial strength, and open industry standards-based relational database. The target users for this DB2 edition are typically SMBs (small and medium businesses) and ISVs. DB2 Express provides an attractive entry and competitive price point for businesses that choose to leverage the benefits of Linux, Solaris x64 (64-bit), and Windows-based servers (the previous links take you to the most up-to-date platform support information).
Because DB2 Express is a full-fledged DB2 server at its core, DBAs can leverage its built-in autonomic manageability features such as the Self Tuning Memory Manager (STMM), Optim management and development tooling, autonomic maintenance plans, automated backup tuning, backup compression, archive log compression (new in DB2 10.1), text searches, throttling, and more. Collectively, these services help to increase the performance and reliability of your DB2 solution, while at the same time minimizing administration complexity, required skills, and overall total cost of ownership.
This edition of DB2 is fully compatible with the rest of the scalable DB2 family of relational databases for Linux, Windows, and UNIX platforms, and you can easily pre-configure DB2 Express to transparently install within your applications for easy deployment. Clients love DB2 Express because all they see is a solution; Business Partners love it because they can trust it to run virtually unattended.
DB2 Express comes with the rights to use the DB2 Net Search Extender, Text Search Extender, and the Spatial Extender (all are free with all DB2 editions), as well as homogeneous SQL-based replication. To further add to the value this edition delivers, pureXML and homogeneous federation are included too. pureXML provides the ability to create pureXML columns in a DB2 Express database and leverage an associated set of XML services like XML Schema validation and registration services, path-based indexing services, XQuery services, and more. pureXML provides services such that no compromises between flexibility (what XML was designed for) and performance (one of the reasons why you want the database server to store your XML) need to be made when storing your XML data. We've looked very closely at our competitor's XML offerings and we can assure you there is something very pure in pureXML; although it's outside the scope of this article to delve into those details, think "What's under the hood?"
Homogeneous SQL replication and homogeneous federation let you integrate data across members of the IBM relational database server family, namely DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, as well as Informix, DB2 for z/OS, and DB2 for i. (Note: usage of either of these features with DB2 for z/OS and DB2 for i may require purchase of additional capabilities like DB2 Connect). Homogeneous SQL replication is used to replicate data between a central source data server and up to 100 or more target servers. If you also need to replicate to or from a non-IBM database, or would prefer to leverage queue-based replication instead of SQL replication, you'd need a product like IBM InfoSphere Data Replication instead (or DB2 Advanced Enterprise Edition which includes Q-replication between three DB2 Linux, UNIX, and Windows data servers).
Homogeneous federation provides the ability to create nicknames across DB2 and Informix servers. This allows you to develop applications accessing DB2 and Informix tables that reside on different platforms and servers without concern to their location. For example, you could use this feature to easily create an application that performs a distributed join of data that resides on a DB2 for i database with one that's running DB2 for Linux on System z, or Informix, and so on. If you wanted to federate a query across non-IBM database servers (for example, Oracle, SQL Server, and so on), you would need to purchase one of the products from the separately available IBM InfoSphere Federation Server suite for this DB2 Edition, or you could purchase DB2 Advanced Enterprise Edition which includes federation to Oracle data sources.
Taking into account that other popular SMB-targeted databases only have advanced availability, online, and management features in their Enterprise-only editions, and combining that with the DB2 Express price point and autonomic capabilities, you may never even know DB2 Express is there - and that includes your pocketbook!
As if that wasn't enough, DB2 Express 10.1 also includes two advanced security features called Row and Column Access Control (RCAC), and Label Based Access Control (LBAC). With RCAC, which is new in DB2 10.1, data stewards can easily apply custom rules to control read and write access for users and groups at the table column and row level. At runtime, unauthorized columns are masked while unauthorized rows are completely hidden from the user. In addition to providing a finely tunable and flexible security mechanism, RCAC makes it much easier to develop multi-tenant applications by providing automatic separation of tenant data residing in the same tables as a transparent and high performing database service; these features add to the existing multi-tenant services provided by previous versions of DB2.
LBAC, formerly an add on to DB2 Enterprise Edition, is similar to RCAC except it uses security labels attached to table objects to control who has access. Users attempting to access an object must have its security label granted to them. When there's a match, access is permitted. Without a match, access is denied and data is hidden. Unlike RCAC, LBAC is specifically targeted for applications where control must be structured around a rigid hierarchical representation of a business entity, such as government security clearance levels.
The included high availability feature set (which was a separately priced add-on feature in DB2 9.7) provides a number of services that enhance the availability of applications running on DB2 Express servers by including support for online table reorganizations, a two-node cluster license for the IBM Tivoli SA MP high availability services that's built into DB2, support for DB2 advanced copy services, and High Availability Disaster Recovery (HADR).
HADR is a set of availability services that provide a turnkey database availability solution and a protection plan that not only provides redundancy across the entire solution stack, but can meet even the most stringent availability service level agreements (SLAs) with a mean-time-to-repair (MTTR) typically measured in 30-60 seconds. The best part about HADR is that you set it up with mere clicks of a button. What's more, read-on-standby technology allows you to open up a standby HADR database for read-only queries (this type of access to the stand-by does have licensing considerations).
Also new in DB2 10.1 is the ability to have up to three standby servers, which gives you the flexibility to have your data replicated at multiple sites for both high availability and disaster recovery, all with the same easy to use HADR technology included with DB2. In addition, you can also specify a time delay before a log is applied to any one of the standby servers which buys you time in the event a mistake happens on the primary that you want to prevent from being applied to the standbys, (a great feature to protect your data against human error).
The online table reorganization (REORG), sometimes referred to as an in-place REORG, is unlike anything else you'll find in other vendor's offerings. It provides a continuous reorganization of a table without the excess disk space associated with the traditional "shadow" copy approach. It can be started, paused, and throttled; whenever you alter the state of the operation, the benefits are immediate. For example, you could run the reorganization through the evening and then throttle it back during the day, or even pause it. Applications accessing the table would immediately see the benefits up to the point to where it was stopped: that's real availability.
DB2 Advanced Copy Services (ACS) enables you to leverage the fast copying technology of supported storage devices to perform the data copying part of backup and restore operations. Using the storage device to perform the data copy phase makes backup and restore operations much faster. A backup operation that uses DB2 ACS is often referred to as a snapshot backup.
DB2 includes a set of built-in clustering services that give you the ability to cluster together two servers for high availability and even automate the fail-over of an HADR solution. In addition to this, the DB2 installation program can automatically configure this high availability cluster. To make your DB2 high availability solution even more bullet proof, there's a high availability management framework, fronted by the DB2 High Availability Instance Configuration Utility (db2haicu) that provides a text-based interface that you can use to configure, administer, and synchronize the infrastructure definition of your highly available database topologies in a clustered environment.
Now DB2 can collect information about your database instance, your cluster environment, and your cluster manager by querying your system, and can keep the whole cluster synchronized when changes occur. For example, consider the effects of adding a new storage container, what you do to one side of the cluster has to be done to the other and DB2 will automate that for you; this is a big deal because this is a tedious and error prone process, and human error is the number one reason for downtime. DB2 helps you here tremendously.
DB2 Express 10.1 has the following architectural limits with respect to the server or virtualization session upon which it is installed:
- DB2 Express is limited to 8 GB of memory. Even if you have multiple
instances of DB2 running concurrently, you cannot exceed the 8 GB
limit which applies cumulatively to all instances and databases in a
server or virtualization session. If your virtualization technology
doesn't let you cap the memory to 8 GB, you can do it manually with a
DB2 configuration parameter.
- DB2 Express is limited to 4 processor cores per server or
virtualization session. You can install DB2 Express on any sized
physical server, but it will throttle itself to only using 4 cores. If
you want DB2 Express to use more than 4 cores, simply carve up the
physical server using an IBM recognized virtualization technology. Since the core
limits are per virtualization session, two licensed copies of DB2
Express installed in separate virtual servers can each use up to 4
cores, or 8 cores total. This is actually a great way to take full
advantage of a large physical server in order to consolidate workloads
from multiple small standalone servers.
- When DB2 Express is used on a physical server with more than 4 cores, make sure you leverage IBM's sub-capacity licensing terms to save as much money as possible. With sub-capacity licensing, you only need to pay for the cores used by DB2. However, different licensing metrics, platforms, and virtualization technologies have different pre-requisites which allow you to use this edition in a sub-capacity environment. For more information, check out the Virtualization Capacity License Counting Rules IBM website for PVU licensing and the Subcapacity Licensing Guide for Server and FTL licensing.
A DB2 Express server can be licensed in one of the following ways.
- Processor Value Unit License (PVU): You must purchase the total number of PVUs associated with the server or virtualization session where the DB2 Express software is installed. Since DB2 Express won't use more than 4 cores per virtualization session, be sure to limit the cores available to the virtualization session to 4 or less to minimize your license cost under the PVU metric. This license allows for an unlimited number of users to access the DB2 Express server using any method possible. If you are licensing one or more warm DB2 Express standby servers with PVUs, you license each for 100 PVUs per physical standby server no matter what processor architecture it is using.
- Authorized User Single Install License (AUSI): You
must purchase the total number of authorized users (AUs) that will
access each copy of DB2 Express running on separate servers or
virtualization sessions. An AU is a single individual (in some cases,
it can be an application or appliance so long as it doesn't act on
behalf of other users) with a specific identity that resides inside or
outside your company. These licenses can be used over the Internet
(like an online banking application) only if the end user is well
known since they must be specifically identifiable for this license.
Note the term specific identity. If you are using
multiplexing or connection concentration software, these users need to
be fully identified before such technology is applied to a connection.
Moreover, anyone who does not have an AUSI license must be prohibited
from connecting to the DB2 server. An AUSI license is not transferable
across work shifts (though it can be transferred for employment
turnover) and is only valid for a specific data server.
You need an AUSI license for anyone accessing the database; however, no matter how many users are accessing your DB2 Express server, you need to minimally buy 5 AUSI licenses. For example, if you had 25 users that needed to access two separate DB2 Express servers running in different virtualization sessions, you would need to purchase a total of 50 AUSI licenses for these 25 users: 2 servers x 25 AUs per server. Even if only 12 of these users were ever connected to the data server at one time, all 25 users would still have to be licensed for each server (so you still need 50 AUSI licenses). If you had a single DB2 Express server and only 3 users, you would still need to purchase 5 AUSI licenses because of the minimum number of users required for this edition. Finally, when licensing a warm DB2 Express standby server, you license it for 5 AUSIs if the hot production server is also using the AU licensing model.
- Fixed Term Server License (FTL): When you license DB2 Express with an FTL Server license you are effectively buying a yearly support and entitlement contract for your DB2 Express server. If your FTL contract expires, you no longer have usage rights for this product. It's easy to calculate the costs of an FTL license. You don't have to concern yourself with the number of users, PVU conversion of the server, cores, or anything else, you just buy an FTL license for every server or virtualization session where it's installed. If you have 5 servers, you need 5 licenses - it's that easy. The FTL license allows for an unlimited number of users to access the DB2 Express server. A warm standby server would require 1 FTL license per physical server if the primary server(s) were licensed under the FTL metric. Note that under this licensing scheme, it does not matter if the standby server is warm or hot – you need the same number of licenses for the standby regardless.
- Perpetual Server License (SERVER): This licensing option is procured in the same manner as the FTL license - on a per server basis. The difference between the FTL license and the SERVER license is that the FTL license is a 1 year subscription (you are leasing the DB2 Express software) and the SERVER license is a perpetual license (you own the DB2 Express software). The SERVER license allows for an unlimited number of users to access the DB2 Express server. An example of licensing DB2 Express using a SERVER license is the same as the FTL licensed in the previous bullet: you license for each installation, be it on a physical server or in a virtualized session. The exception (which applies to the FTL license as well) is if you have multiple copies of DB2 Express installed on the same physical server or virtualized session. In that case, all copies of DB2 Express would be using the same 4 processor cores, so no additional license is required. If you want to license a warm standby server under the SERVER metric, a single license entitlement is required per physical standby server. Figure 3 shows the major differences between DB2 Express-C and DB2 Express.
Figure 3. Difference between DB2 Express-C and DB2 Express
(View a larger version of Figure 3.)
Several significant changes dramatically increase the value of DB2 Express in DB2 10.1. First, the High Availability Feature option (which was the only separately purchasable feature option available for DB2 Express in previous versions of DB2) is no longer available. Instead, that function is now a free feature set of DB2 Express regardless of what license metric you use! As if that wasn't enough, you now only need to license the first warm/idle standby server on each physical server. That means any additional warm/idle servers that you choose to run on that same physical server are absolutely free. With these two changes, you can now run DB2 Express in a highly available environment at an incredibly attractive price. For example, if you have 4 DB2 Express production servers licensed under the SERVER metric, you could have them all replicating to warm standby servers running on a fifth physical server for the price of a single SERVER license.
In DB2 9.7, you were also restricted to 4 GB of RAM per server or virtualization session. Starting with DB2 10.1, that limit is now increased to 8 GB.
DB2 Express is an entry-level DB2 server that should be considered for workloads that won't greatly benefit from more than 8 GB of database memory, or more than 4 cores of processing power. This edition isn't well suited for applications that require high scalability features like aggregate or MDC tables because these features aren't part of the base DB2 Express server and aren't additionally available through feature options.
Sage, one of the world's most well known providers of end-to-end software that run SMB businesses and beyond, ships their ACCPAC application running on DB2 Express by default. Craig Downing (Vice President of Product Management) notes that "DB2 clearly shows IBM's commitment to the SMB market. In particular, the focus on automating administrative tasks gives small and mid-size business high-data reliability without high administrative attention."
When a company that services over 2.8 million small to medium users in North America alone (and over 4.5 million world wide) chooses DB2 Express to handle one of their most popular applications because of its high reliability and low administration requirements... that's cool!
DB2 Workgroup Server Edition (DB2 Workgroup) is a DB2 server that includes the same features as DB2 Express, as well as DB2's revolutionary high availability clustering technology for System X and POWER 7-based servers called DB2 pureScale that allows the addition of extra capacity without any downtime. DB2 Workgroup can also handle more demanding workloads than DB2 Express thanks to higher memory and processing core limits. Finally, DB2 Workgroup has a broader range of platform deployment options than its DB2 Express counterpart, including support on most of the distributed platforms where DB2 runs, namely: Linux (except for Linux on System z), Windows, AIX, Solaris (both SPARC and x64), and HP-UX Itanium; the previous links take you to the most up-to-date platform support information.
Remember, the DB2 server editions are very much a set of Russian dolls, so features that are part of DB2 Express are part of DB2 Workgroup; for example, STMM, backup compression, archive log compression, pureXML, homogeneous federation, HADR with multiple standbys, row and column access control, time travel query, and more are all freely available in DB2 Workgroup too since these technologies are all a part of DB2 Express. There are no feature options available for DB2 Workgroup servers.
The most significant feature-related difference between DB2 Express and DB2 Workgroup is DB2 pureScale, which is a clustering feature that provides extreme scalability and availability. Optimized for OLTP applications that need to be able to scale dynamically without service disruptions, DB2 pureScale lets you add or remove members from your database cluster without outages and do it in a way that is completely transparent to your applications. We won't get into the details here because they're described at length later in this article. What we will say here is that inclusion of DB2 pureScale in DB2 Workgroup is really cool because it's an add-on feature to both DB2 Enterprise and DB2 Advanced Enterprise, but you get to it absolutely free with DB2 Workgroup. Moreover, there are no restrictions on the DB2 pureScale capabilities that come with DB2 Workgroup. The only limiting factor is that you cannot use more than 16 processor cores across the entire cluster (not including any cores used by the DB2 pureScale Cluster Facility and quorum host), which is the same core limit that applies to DB2 Workgroup even if you don't use DB2 pureScale.
As mentioned previously, DB2 Workgroup is restricted to 16 cores per server or virtualization session. DB2 Workgroup is also limited to 64 GB of RAM per server or virtual session. These limits must be observed regardless of how many installs or instances of DB2 Express you have running in a given server or virtualization session. Be sure to use eligible IBM virtualization technologies and the appropriate DB2 memory limit parameter if needed to ensure you stay within these limits.
For example, if your unpartitioned server has 32 cores, you couldn't install DB2 Workgroup because you have no way of ensuring the DB2 server will only use 16 cores. However, by configuring a VMWare session to use no more than 16 cores, you could install DB2 Workgroup within that virtualized session plus only have to pay for the cores that DB2 will actually use under IBM's subcapacity licensing terms.
Of course, separate installations of DB2 Workgroup in different virtualization sessions can each use up to the limit of CPU/RAM. Consequently, DB2 Workgroup is an ideal choice for consolidation of departmental workloads onto a large physical server. By using IBM recognized virtualization technologies to divide up the large physical server into several smaller virtual servers with no more than 16 cores each, you can fully utilize all capacity on the large physical server.
For example, if you configured two VMWare sessions and installed DB2 Workgroup in each of them, and the total server had 128 GB of RAM, each session's DB2 Workgroup server could address up to 64 GB of RAM. Naturally, you would have to license each of these DB2 Workgroup servers on this same physical server independently since each installation resides in its own virtualization session, which is why you have to license each session thereby giving you two installations with access to 64 GB of server memory each.
A DB2 Workgroup 10.1 server can be licensed in one of the following ways.
- Processor Value Unit License (PVU): You must purchase the total number of PVUs associated with the server or virtualization session where the DB2 Workgroup software is installed. Since DB2 Workgroup will not use more than 16 cores per server or virtualization session, ensure you limit the cores DB2 has access to no more than 16 so that you don't end up paying for cores that won't be used. This license allows for an unlimited number of users to access the DB2 Workgroup server using any method possible. If you are licensing a warm DB2 Workgroup standby server with PVUs, you license it for 100 PVUs per physical server, no matter what processor architecture it is using and regardless of how many warm standby servers you intend to run on that physical server. Note this assumes all the primary hot servers are also running DB2 Workgroup licensed under the PVU metric. If not, you would need to license 100 PVUs for any hot primary servers licensed under the PVU metric plus you would need to acquire additional licenses for the remaining DB2 servers licensed under any different metrics. For this reason, it makes sense to try to license all of your DB2 Workgroup primary servers under the same licensing metric as that can help you minimize the cost of your warm standby licensing.
- Authorized User Single Install License (AUSI): The terms of this license metric are identical to what was described previously for DB2 Express when licensed by AUSI, except it now applies to authorized users (AUs) that will access each installed copy of DB2 Workgroup running on separate servers or virtualization sessions. As with DB2 Express, this license metric is best suited for environments where you can identify and purchase sufficient AUSI entitlements for the individuals that will connect to each DB2 Workgroup server in advance, and prevent unauthorized, unlicensed people from accessing those same servers. Also like DB2 Express, you must acquire a minimum of 5 AUSI licenses per server or virtualization session in which a copy of DB2 workgroup is installed, though multiple copies installed in the same virtualization session are treated as one install from a licensing perspective. For example, if you have two copies of DB2 Workgroup installed and running in the same 16 core partition and want the same 7 people to be able to connect to either server, you would only need to acquire 7 AUSI licenses. However, if you were to put those 2 copies of DB2 Workgroup in separate virtualized sessions, then you would need to purchase 7 x 2 = 14 AUSI licenses. Finally, when licensing a warm DB2 Workgroup standby server, you need only acquire 5 AUSI licenses per physical server.
- Socket License (SOCKET): This DB2 Workgroup licensing
option is procured by paying a specified price for each
socket on the underlying server or virtualized session that DB2 will
use. For example, if you had an unpartitioned 4-socket 4-core Xeon
Nehalem EX E38899 server rated at 1120 PVUs, you would only have to
buy four SOCKET licenses. However, if your physical server is greater
than 16 cores, you will first need to partition the server to ensure
each copy of DB2 Workgroup is restricted to 16 cores. Once you
introduce virtualization to the equation, things can start to get
complicated when you try to figure out how many SOCKET licenses you
must purchase based on the number of virtual cores that will be used
by DB2 Workgroup. Use the following simple counting rule to help you
calculate the required SOCKET entitlements in almost any scenario:
- For each physical server or, where partitioned, virtualized session that will have a copy of DB2 Workgroup installed, sum the number of processor cores available to that server.
- Sum the results of step 1 for all virtual servers on a single physical server.
- Divide the result of step 2 by the number of processor cores per socket on the physical server.
- Round up the result of step 3 to the nearest whole number.
- The lesser of the result of step 4 and the number of active sockets on the physical server is the required Limited Use Socket entitlement.
For example, suppose you would like to use DB2 Workgroup with pureScale, and the cluster consists of a 3 core logical partition (LPAR), a 6 core LPAR, and a 7 core LPAR, each running on separate hexacore socket physical servers. Applying the previous counting rules to this scenario yields 1 SOCKET entitlement for the 3 core LPAR, 1 SOCKET entitlement for the 6 core LPAR, and 2 SOCKET entitlements for the 7 core LPAR. Therefore, you would need to buy 4 SOCKET licenses in total for this particular environment. See the licensing guide for more DB2 Workgroup SOCKET licensing examples.
The great thing about SOCKET licensing is that you pay the same price per socket regardless of how many cores are on the socket, though keep in mind that you can't use more than the 16 core limit. Therefore, SOCKET licensing delivers the best value when used with high end processors that have many cores per socket. Like PVU, SOCKET licensing also allows for an unlimited number of users to connect to a DB2 Workgroup server which makes it an ideal choice for customer facing applications.
If primary servers are licensed under the SOCKET metric, then one or more warm standby server can be had for the price of a single SOCKET license per physical server.
As of DB2 10.1, you now only need to license the first warm/idle DB2 Workgroup standby server on each physical server. That means any additional warm/idle servers that you choose to run on that same physical server are absolutely free.
DB2 Personal Edition (PE) is no longer available starting with version 10.1. Existing DB2 PE customers will have their entitlements automatically migrated 1-for-1 to DB2 Workgroup AU entitlements at no charge.
DB2 Workgroup can play many roles in a business. It is very appropriate for small to medium-sized businesses that need a full-fledged relational database store that is scalable and available, yet wouldn't benefit greatly from more than 64 GB of memory, or more than 16 cores of processing power. Perhaps more than DB2 Express, DB2 Workgroup is especially well suited for enterprise environments that need small servers for line of business applications, or for departments that need enterprise services for lower transactional throughput applications. Think about it, you get enterprise-class availability at mid-market prices. That's unique!
Montefarmaco OTC is a key player in the Italian market of over-the-counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals and healthcare products. The company delivers its products nationwide to around 12,000 local pharmacies, generating up to 40,000 sales invoices every year. Each of those documents need to be processed, filed and stored for a number of years in order to comply with a variety of Italian pharmaceutical regulations.
To help manage their invoice repository, Montefarmaco OTC implemented a document repository solution based on DB2 Workgroup Edition. The extreme scalability and exceptional performance of DB2 Workgroup allows them to support increasing data volumes as their business grows. At the same time, they expect to reduce their overall storage and administration costs by around 50 percent. Did you get that? DB2 Workgroup Edition does more work and saves money at the same time. Now, even the procurement folks think DB2 is cool!
DB2 Enterprise Server Edition (DB2 Enterprise) is a full-function, premier Web-enabled client/server database server that is available on all the supported distributed platforms where DB2 editions can run, namely as follows. Linux (x86, POWER, SYSTEM Z), Windows, AIX, Solaris (x64 and SPARC), and HP-UX (Itanium): the previous links take you to the most up to date platform support information.
DB2 Enterprise is meant for large and mid-sized departmental servers and is rich in base features and services. For example, services like intra-query parallelism, MDCs, MQTs, table partitioning, and more are all provided free of charge in this edition of DB2 and aren't even available through feature options for DB2 Express and DB2 Workgroup installations.
There are no limits with respect to the amount of RAM you can leverage with this edition of DB2; in fact, one benchmark result that was run in our labs used almost 4 TB of memory for its buffer pools - that's more RAM than many companies have data. There is also no maximum PVU rating for the underlying server or virtualization session where the DB2 Enterprise software is running.
One really exciting new feature added to DB2 Enterprise in version 10.1 is multi-temperature storage management. If you think of your most commonly accessed data as 'hot,' your least commonly accessed data as 'cold,' and data in between as 'warm,' then this feature allows you to allocate your most (or least) expensive storage to your hottest (or coldest) data in order to maximize I/O throughput and hence performance. For example, suppose you have a large table containing retail sales data. Data for the current quarter is inserted and updated frequently and those transactions need to happen quickly, whereas older data isn't accessed very often, and when it is, processing time can be delayed. With DB2's multi-temperature storage management, you can tell DB2 to put the current quarter data on fast SSD storage and everything else on slower disk storage. DB2 will then go about doing this for you in a way that is completely automatic and transparent to your applications.
DB2 Enterprise also has a set of feature options that are designed to extend enterprise solutions with an even richer set of data services.
As previously mentioned, DB2 Enterprise has its own set of unique feature options that provide an extended set of advanced data services for this edition of DB2. Feature options for DB2 Enterprise must be licensed in the same manner as the DB2 Enterprise server where they will be installed and licensed, namely through an AU or PVU license. However, some feature options (such as the DB2 Storage Optimization Feature option) aren't available via an AU license and must be licensed via a PVU metric. However, DB2 Advanced Enterprise Server Edition includes the Storage Optimization Feature option and can be licensed with an AU license - more on that in a bit. This means that in order to purchase such a feature option for DB2 Enterprise, you'd have to license DB2 Enterprise with a PVU license.
The feature options available for DB2 10.1 include the following.
- DB2 pureScale: On October 11th 2009, IBM announced DB2
pureScale, a revolutionary development for the availability and
scalability of OLTP workloads running on distributed platforms. DB2
pureScale reduces the risk and cost of business growth by providing
unlimited capacity, continuous availability, and true application
transparency. DB2 pureScale delivers levels of database scalability
and reliability on distributed platforms most closely approaching
those of System z. It is designed to meet the most demanding
transaction processing needs, both now and in the future. Breakthrough
levels of availability are ensured thanks to uninterrupted processing
during node failures and a redundant architecture. Adding capacity is
painless because DB2 pureScale does not require application changes.
If there is one thing to remember about DB2 pureScale, it's that it provides transparent application scaling. While this term is a favorite of some competitor's marketing campaign, it's just that: marketing. DB2 pureScale has direct lineage to the DB2 for z/OS SYSPLEX coupling facility and inherits many of the fundamental characteristics such as a global shared buffer pool, page registration, and locking services. This means that you don't have to build locality of data information into your applications. In addition, there are all sorts of amazing engineering techniques that provide the fastest failure detection recovery times we've ever seen in distributed computing environments, as well as near-linear scalability. It's outside the scope of this article to delve into what DB2 pureScale looks like and how it works, but you are strongly encouraged to learn more about this technology.
Figure 4 shows an architectural view of a DB2 10.1 pureScale environment.
Figure 4. A DB2 10.1 pureScale environment
As you can see in Figure 4, a DB2 pureScale environment is made up of multiple machines. The Cluster Caching Facility (CF) provides central control services for a global buffer pool, lock management, and interested page lists. A DB2 pureScale environment can have one or more CF servers. Clients connect to members in a DB2 pureScale cluster and these members interact with the CF to help process client applications. In a DB2 pureScale environment, you have to license each member with DB2 Enterprise Edition. In addition, you have to purchase the DB2 pureScale Feature option for each member in the cluster. You do not have to buy any DB2 licenses or feature options for the CF servers.
For example, let's assume you have a DB2 pureScale environment composed of five POWER7 servers rated at 960 PVUs each. Two of these servers are configured to perform the role of a CF, leaving three other servers to act as a data members. In this environment, you would have to purchase 2880 PVUs of DB2 Enterprise (960 PVUs x 3 servers) + 2880 PVUs of DB2 pureScale (960 PVUs x 3 servers). You do not have to license the two CFs with any DB2 Enterprise or DB2 pureScale licenses whatsoever. Note that the CF servers don't have to sit on a separate server, they can reside within a virtualization session co-located on the same server as a DB2 member running in a separate virtualization session. The example shown in Figure 4 is for licensing illustration only.
- DB2 Storage Optimization Feature option: Provides storage
compression services to optimize the performance and footprint of your
data. This feature option provides access to the compression
technology first introduced in DB2 9, and subsequently extended in DB2
9.5, DB2 9.7, and again in DB2 10.1.
Deep compression services were first introduced in DB2 9 and caught the database industry by storm. In DB2 9.5, they were expanded to include autonomic dictionary creation. In DB2 9.7, compression was further rounded out with support for temporary table compression, pureXML XDA compression, multiple index compression algorithms, and more. DB2 10.1 introduces Advanced Compression which combines the distinct advantages of a global compression dictionary with a page-level compression dictionary to help maximize compression rates and maintain stable compression rates even if the global dictionary has become stale. Taken together, these services provide compression from disk to heaps, yielding impressive potential for memory and disk savings up to 80% (internal tests average around 65%+ disk savings with these services for some schemas) and performance speed-up for I/O-bound systems, and what data warehouse systems aren't I/O bound - it's easy to remove a memory or CPU bottleneck after all. But there's more.
Consider for a moment the other implicit benefits that arise from compression. Trust us, it extends beyond disk savings. Think about all those backups that you are mandated to keep. Not only will they be smaller, they'll run faster because you are backing up fewer data pages. Think about your Q/A and test environments. Consider for a moment that if the data is compressed on disk and in the memory buffers, the extra data you could get into those heaps. This means not only will performance likely improve, but maintenance operations like RUNSTATS and REORG could run faster too because they are page-based operations as well. Take all of this into account, and consider the fact that DB2 can support over 2,300 rows on a single data page, and you've got a pretty compelling I/O bottleneck remover on your hands. Finally, consider the environment charge back for your storage; not only will it save you money, it'll reduce the ecological footprint of your IT solution. The point here is that compressing your data is more than just saving disk space, it's environmentally friendly too! This feature option can only be licensed via the PVU licensing methodology on a DB2 Enterprise Server. It can be licensed using PVU and AU models with DB2 Advanced Enterprise Server Edition as you'll see in the next section.
You can license DB2 Enterprise 10.1 in one of the following two ways.
- Processor Value Unit License (PVU): By purchasing the total number of PVUs associated with the server or the virtualization session where you plan to run the software. This will allow for an unlimited number of users and devices to access the DB2 Enterprise server. Different platforms and virtualization technologies have different pre-requisites which allow you to use this DB2 edition in a sub-capacity environment. If you are licensing DB2 Enterprise as a warm standby (for example, in an HADR configuration), you only need to license it for 100 PVUs per physical standby server.
- Authorized User License Single Install (AUSI): The
terms of this license metric are identical to what was described
previously for DB2 Express when licensed by an AUSI license, except it
now applies to authorized users (AUs) that will access each installed
copy of DB2 Enterprise running on separate servers or virtualization
sessions. As with DB2 Express, this license metric is best suited for
environments where you can identify and purchase sufficient AUSI
entitlements for the individuals that will connect to each DB2
Enterprise server in advance, and prevent unauthorized, unlicensed
people from accessing those same servers. DB2 Enterprise has a minimum
set of AU users that must be licensed, just like DB2 Express and DB2
Workgroup. However, instead of the minimum 5 AUs per server that's
associated with DB2 Express and DB2 Workgroup, you need to minimally
license DB2 Enterprise with 25 AUSIs for every 100 PVUs for which your
server or virtualization session is rated. It should be noted that for
every installation there is a break even point at which time it makes
more sense to license the server via the PVU metric. In addition, if
you are licensing DB2 Enterprise as a warm standby, for example, in an
HADR configuration, you only need to license it for 25 AUs (the
required minimum for 100 PVUs).
Let's assume you are running DB2 Enterprise on a four core LPAR on an IBM Power 7 750 server rated at 100 PVU per core. In this case, you would at least have to purchase 100 AUSI licenses because the total PVU rating for this partition is 400 PVUs (400 PVUs/100 PVUs = 4 x 25 AUs). If, instead, you are running DB2 Enterprise on a Power7 770 server that has four quad processors rated at 120 PVU per core, you would at least have to purchase 500 AUSI licenses since the PVU rating for this server is 1920 PVUs, and when you cross a 100 PVU threshold you round up to the next tier to establish the minimum number of users.
As another example, if you had 75 users that needed to access two separate DB2 Enterprise servers, you would need to purchase a total of 150 AU licenses for these 75 users: 2 servers x 75 AUs per server = 150 (75 for each server). However, if both of those servers had 2 quad-core Intel Xeon E52600 based processors rated at 70 PVU per core, you would need a minimum of 300 AUSI licenses (150 for each server) because of the minimum number of AUSIs that accompany DB2 Enterprise (25 users for every 100 PVUs on the server): ((( 2 sockets x 4 cores = 8 cores) x 70 PVUs per core = 560 PVUs)/100 PVUs rounded up = 6) x 25 AUs = 150 x 2 servers = 300 AUs.
To simplify the menu of DB2 Enterprise options, several feature options that were available with DB2 Enterprise 9.7 are no longer available for purchase but instead come bundled with various DB2 10.1 editions. As was mentioned previously, the Label Based Access Control function that was included in the Advanced Access Control Feature option is now included for free with all DB2 editions. The Geodetic Data Management Feature option is also no longer available for purchase with DB2 Enterprise. Instead, customers requiring the spatial capabilities provided by that feature option should use the Spatial Extender feature that is freely available for all DB2 editions.
The Performance Optimization Feature (POF) option is another feature that can no longer be purchased separately. Instead, both DB2 Workload Management and Optim Performance Manager Extended Edition come bundled with the DB2 Advanced Enterprise Edition described below. Existing DB2 Enterprise POF customers that choose not to upgrade to DB2 Advanced Edition are automatically entitled to receive DB2 Workload Management and applicable components of Optim Performance Manager Extended Insight Edition as long as they remain current with their annual POF subscription and support.
Finally, the Homogenous Replication Feature is no longer available for purchase. Customers that need that function should purchase IBM InfoSphere Data Replication instead, or move to the DB2 Advanced Enterprise Edition which includes queue-based replication between up to three DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows servers as described in the following section.
DB2 Enterprise should be strongly considered for any applications that require limitless flexibility (for example, the use of table partitioning) and scalability (for example, there are no PVU or RAM limits). It should also be leveraged when rich extensions such as storage optimization services (like compression), transparent scale-out active/active OLTP clusters (DB2 pureScale), and so on are needed. That said, if you're planning to use these (and other) add-on features or tools, we recommend you consider DB2 Advanced Enterprise Edition because of the cost savings associated with this all in one edition versus the 'a la carte' approach of DB2 Enterprise. With DB2 Enterprise, there aren't really any capacity planning considerations outside of the optimal balance of resources and a full range of available features.
Located in Beijing, China, The Palace Museum, also known as The Forbidden City, is one of China's most important sights. The museum is a symbol of traditional China, as well as the largest and best-preserved masterpiece of classical Chinese architecture.
The Palace Museum recently implemented a first-of-a-kind, fully immersive, three-dimensional (3D) virtual world that re-creates a visceral sense of space and time of The Forbidden City. The Internet-based experience, which represents the city as it was centuries ago during the height of the Ming and Qing dynasties, supports thousands of concurrent users with scalability comparable to that of massive multi-player games. The solution is based on an all-IBM software stack underpinned by none other than DB2 Enterprise Edition… now that’s cool!
DB2 Advanced Enterprise Server Edition (DB2 Advanced) is the ultimate IBM database server edition which is available on all the supported distributed platforms, namely: Linux (x86, POWER, SYSTEM Z), Windows, AIX, Solaris (x64 and SPARC), and HP-UX (Itanium): the previous links take you to the most up-to-date platform support information.
DB2 Advanced is meant for large and mid-sized departmental servers and is fully stocked with all the features that come with DB2 Enterprise, plus features such as storage optimization (a separately priced add-on for DB2 Enterprise), customizable workload management, queue-based replication, continuous data ingest (which is new in DB2 10.1), rich administration, and development tools above all other editions. For example, data, index, temporary, and XML compression are now all included with DB2 Advanced to reduce total database costs. Also included are Workload Management (WLM) and Optim Performance Manager (OPM) which are crucial for controlling and monitoring work within DB2 to optimize your system. By the way, when combined with WLM, the new multi temperature storage management functionality described earlier becomes even more powerful because it allows you to also prioritize workloads according to the temperature of the data. As a result, even if you don’t have different storage types, the DB2 workload manager will still give priority to execution of workloads involving hot data.
And that's not all, DB2 Advanced also includes Homogeneous Q Replication and Federation. Q Replication for DB2 Advanced can be used to replicate a single DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows source data server using the queue-based technology to up to two DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows target data servers. Federation can be used between DB2, Informix, and Oracle data sources without the need for an additional license. Clearly DB2 Advanced gives you the biggest bang for your buck and is the recommended way to go for any enterprise-level solution.
As with DB2 Enterprise, DB2 Advanced has no limit with respect to the amount of RAM you can leverage, and there is no maximum PVU rating for the underlying server or virtualization session where DB2 Advanced is running.
To summarize, the following is a list of feature options and tools included with DB2 Advanced over DB2 Enterprise.
- Storage Optimization Feature (which can be licensed via the AU metric too)
- Homogeneous Q Replication (replicate a single DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows source data server to up to two DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows target data servers)
- Federation between DB2, Informix, and Oracle data sources
- Optim Performance manager (OPM) Extended Edition
- Optim Query Workload Tuner
- Optim Configuration Manager
- Optim pureQuery Runtime for DB2 Linux, UNIX, and Windows
- InfoSphere Data Architect (10 Authorized User licenses)
As mentioned previously, DB2 Advanced provides incredible value over DB2 Enterprise by including several capabilities, feature options, and tools that would otherwise need to be purchased separately with DB2 Enterprise. In fact, there isn't much that is not already included in DB2 Advanced. One notable exception is DB2 pureScale which is the only feature option that must be separately purchased for DB2 Advanced under either the AU of PVU license metrics. As has already been mentioned a few times in this article, DB2 pureScale is breakthrough clustering technology for OLTP workloads that provides unparalleled scalability and uptime in a way that is completely transparent to applications. See the description of this feature under the DB2 Enterprise section shown previously for full details.
You can license DB2 Advanced in one of the following two ways.
- Processor Value Unit License (PVU): By purchasing the
total number of PVUs associated with the
server or the virtualization session where you plan to run the
software. This will allow for an unlimited number of users and devices
to access the DB2 Advanced server. Different platforms and virtualization technologies have different
pre-requisites which allow you to use this DB2 edition in a
sub-capacity environment. In addition, if you are licensing DB2
Advanced as a warm standby (for example, in an HADR configuration),
you only need to license it for 100 PVUs per physical standby
- Authorized User Single Install License (AUSI): The
terms of this license metric are identical to what was described
previously for DB2 Enterprise when licensed by AUSI, except it now
applies to authorized users (AUs) that will access each installed copy
of DB2 Advanced running on separate servers or virtualization
sessions. As with DB2 Enterprise, this license metric is best suited
for environments where you can identify and purchase sufficient AUSI
entitlements for the individuals that will connect to each DB2
Advanced server in advance, and prevent unauthorized, unlicensed
people from accessing those same servers. Also as with DB2 Enterprise,
you need to minimally license DB2 Advanced Enterprise with 25 AUs for
every 100 PVUs for which your server or virtualization session is
rated. If you are licensing DB2 Advanced as a warm standby, for
example, in an HADR configuration, you only need to license it for 25
AUs (the required minimum for 100 PVUs).
DB2 Advanced comes equipped with feature options such as storage optimization services (like compression), performance optimization (OPM), and other features (Homogeneous Q Replication, Federation, and Workload Management) not to mention a full complement of high value tools (like Optim Query Workload Tuner and Optim pureQuery Runtime for DB2 Linux, UNIX, and Windows). Therefore, DB2 Advanced should be strongly considered for any applications that require limitless flexibility, scalability, compression, security, and advanced database management tools. DB2 Advanced truly comes with everything you need for your enterprise solution, so if you are running DB2 Enterprise, we strongly suggest looking at DB2 Advanced.
Domino's Pizza is one of largest pizza delivery services in the world today. Having been in business for over 50 years and having grown into a global enterprise with franchises worldwide, Domino's Pizza understands and appreciates the need for an enterprise-level solution which DB2 Advanced provides. They collect data from their large number of locations to provide better products and services to their clients, and guess which database they use? You guessed it...DB2 Advanced! Domino's DBAs note: "With DB2 Advanced we don't need to worry about which feature is included or not included because everything we need is there. This allows us to concentrate on our application and solution. It's great!". We like to think of DB2 Advanced as ordering a large Domino's pizza with as many ingredients as we like. Our kids' favorite pizza company in the world is using DB2 and we know we don't have to worry about getting our pizza delivered at the right address, on time, and with the widest selection of fresh toppings... now that's cool.
For application development and testers, a special offering called Database Enterprise Developer's Edition (DEDE) is available. This is a reduced price offering that gives individuals access to most of the DB2 features and editions, as well as a set of Informix products and DB2 Connect, for the purposes of development, evaluation, demonstration, and testing of application programs. It is licensed on a per-user basis. Depending on the number of users you have, it may or may not be a more cost effective solution for the processes that make up the application development life cycle.
You can use DEDE for development, quality assurance (Q/A), user acceptance, and other non-production environments. What's more, a developer or tester with a DEDE license can connect to any non-production DB2 server which makes it incredible effective and a big time budget saver for your environments.
DB2 not only runs on many platforms, but also has a flexible edition structure that allows you to find the right price point and services for the right solution. For DB2 10.1, you'll find that all of the editions offer a lot more. Considering the state of the economy, you can never go wrong with more value.
Scaling DB2 is seamless from edition to edition, and this gives you the ability to leverage your DB2 investment as your business grows. Whether you are an SMB tracking sales over the Internet, a mobile solutions provider, or a Fortune 500 company trying to analyze sales data to offer clients the right products at the right time, there is an edition of DB2 that's right for you!
- Read the "Licensing distributed DB2 data servers in a high availability
environment" (developerWorks, May 2012) article to ensure you are
licensing your DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows data servers correctly in
a high availability environment.
- Read the "Compare the distributed DB2 data servers" (developerWorks, May
2012) article to compare the DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows editions in
a side-by-side comparison table.
- Visit the developerWorks resource page for DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows
to read articles and tutorials and connect to other resources to expand
your DB2 skills.
- Learn about DB2
Express-C, the no-charge version of DB2 Express Edition for the
- Visit the developerWorks
Information Management zone: Find more resources for DB2
developers and administrators.
- Stay current with developerWorks technical events and webcasts focused on a
variety of IBM products and IT industry topics.
- Attend a free
developerWorks Live! briefing to get up-to-speed quickly on IBM
products and tools as well as IT industry trends.
- Follow developerWorks on
- Watch developerWorks on-demand demos ranging from product installation
and setup demos for beginners, to advanced functionality for experienced
Get products and technologies
- Download a free
trial version of DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows .
- Now you can use
DB2 for free. Download DB2 Express-C, a no-charge
version of DB2 Express Edition for the community that offers the same core
data features as DB2 Express Edition and provides a solid base to build
and deploy applications.
- Build your next
development project with IBM trial software, available
for download directly from developerWorks.
products in the way that suits you best: Download a product trial,
try a product online, use a product in a cloud environment, or spend a few
hours in the SOA Sandbox learning how to implement Service Oriented
- Get involved in the My developerWorks
community. Connect with other developerWorks users while exploring
the developer-driven blogs, forums, groups, and wikis.
William Kulju, B.A., MSc, M.B.A is a Product Manager for IBM DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, and has been with the IBM DB2 group for over 12 years. Prior to becoming a Product Manager, William held various roles of increasing responsibility in development, customer support, quality assurance, and operations. As Product Manager, William's responsibilities include ensuring that current and future versions of DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows are eagerly embraced by the multi-billion-dollar database server marketplace. William is also an expert in DB2 licensing and packaging options and would appreciate your feedback on this article. You can reach him at: firstname.lastname@example.org. William lives in Markham, Canada with his wife and children.
Steven Astorino, BSc - Computer Science is a Senior Manager of DB2 Development overseeing Information Development, User Experience and DB2 Install Development. He has many years of experience in Databases including DB2 as well real time Database Replication. He began his career as a developer and has held a vast range of roles from software development and quality assurance to information development and user experience. Early in his career, Steven has spent several years working with network testing technologies for the Telecom Industry and played a key role in providing VoIP testing solutions. High quality, efficiency and customer focus are amongst his highest goals and directives to ensure outstanding customer satisfaction and experience. You can reach him at: email@example.com.
Paul C. Zikopoulos, B.A., M.B.A., is the Director of Technical Professionals for IBM Software Group’s Information Management division and additionally leads the World Wide Competitive Database and Big Data Technical Sales Acceleration teams. Paul is an award-winning writer and speaker with more than 18 years of experience in Information Management and was recently picked by SAP as one of the Top 50 Big Data Twitter influencers. Paul has written more than 350 magazine articles and 15 books including Understanding Big Data: Analytics for Enterprise Class Hadoop and Streaming Data; Warp Speed, Time Travel, Big Data, and More: DB2 10 New Features; DB2 pureScale: Risk Free Agile Scaling; Break Free with DB2 9.7: A Tour of Cost Saving Features; DB2 Certification for Dummies; DB2 for Dummies; and more. Paul is a DB2 Certified Advanced Technical Expert (DRDA and Clusters) and a DB2 Certified Solutions Expert (BI and DBA). In his spare time, he enjoys all sorts of sporting activities, including running with his dog Chachi, avoiding punches in his MMA training, and trying to figure out the world according to Chloë—his daughter. You can reach him at: firstname.lastname@example.org.