How to use Google Chart Tools with IBM Mashup Center

Learn how IBM Mashup Center can work easily with third party visualization packages

Google Chart Tools provide a rich set of visualization capabilities, such as scatter chart and gauge, that complement the chart types available with the IBM Mashup Center charting widget. You will see how Google Chart Images can be used with IBM Mashup Center to generate markers on the Navteq mapping widget. In addition, the article describes the building of a custom widget that uses Google Chart Tools API to visualize data from enterprise data feeds.

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Louis Mau, IBM Mashup Center Solution Architect, IBM

Louis Mau is part of the InfoSphere MashupHub development team. His current focus is to help customers build situational applications using the IBM Mashup Center. Prior to this role, he was the architect for DB2 Everyplace Sync Server, which helps synchronize data from enterprise databases onto a small foot print database running on mobile devices.



Rajesh Kartha (kartha@us.ibm.com), IBM Mashup Center Solution Architect, IBM

Rajesh Kartha works at IBM Silicon Valley Lab in San Jose as a Solution Architect for IBM Mashup Center. He has extensive experience in software development on various IBM Information Management products.



10 November 2011

Also available in Portuguese

Overview

The IBM Mashup Center includes IBM InfoSphere® MashupHub and IBM Lotus® Mashups toolbox.

Google Chart Tools like scatter chart and gauge can be accessed as images or by API, and this article describes both approaches. The Google Chart Tools Image Charts let you dynamically generate charts as images using a URL string. You will see how to use the generated images as location markers on the IBM Mashup Center mapping widget. The Google Chart Tools API provides JavaScript classes that can be used to build highly interactive visualization. This article will show how to build a sample widget using the charting API that can display data from enterprise data feeds generated by the IBM Mashup Center.

This article assumes that you are already familiar with building mashups and feeds, as well as the basics of writing a widget. In particular, you should know how to program in JavaScript and have some experience using IBM Mashup Center. The "Creating a feed from an enterprise database" and "Developing widgets for IBM Mashup Center" articles in the Resources section provide introductory information that can help get you up to speed on some of the basics of building mashups.

Using chart images as markers on a map

The Navteq Map widget displays location information on a map. Typically, the data source for the map is a feed that you either pull from a Web site or from a feed that you create using the IBM Mashup Center set of feed generators. The feed should be in RSS or ATOM format and each entry element corresponds to one location to be displayed on the map and should contain four elements specifying the following:

  • The Address or location of the marker
  • The event data to be sent when the marker is clicked
  • The information to display on the marker pop-up bubbles
  • The icon (a small image) to be used as marker for this location/address

For the Icon element, the Navteq widget supports the use of simple numbers that refer to predefined icons supplied with the widget. These predefined icons include images typically used in maps to mark locations e.g. house, car, pin etc. However, users are not limited only to those predefined icons. The Navteq widget supports, in addition, the use of a URL in the Icon element that points to an arbitrary image. By using different URLs for different locations, the images could be dynamically generated and vary from location to location. For the images to work well, they should be small in size and have a transparent background. Figure 1 shows an example of using charts as icons in a map.

Figure 1. Charts as map markers
screen shows map with small charts used as Map markers

The chart icons identify customer locations. Each bar chart contains the sales amount for each year between 2008 to 2011. Any charting service that can dynamically generate charts as images could be used for this purpose. The following section shows you how to generate the map illustrated in Figure 1 using Google Image Charts.

It is assumed that you already have a feed that displays a list of customers on the Navteq map widget using the built-in static icons. You will use the IBM Mashup Center data Mashup Builder to modify the feed to use Google Image Charts as markers. See the Resources section for links to IBM Mashup Center documentation on the Navteq widget and the Data Mashup Builder.

Generating Google Image Charts URLs using Data Mashup Builder

The Google Chart Tools Image Chart returns a chart image in response to a URL GET or POST request. The API can generate many kinds of charts, from pie or line charts to QR codes and formulas. All the information about the chart such as chart data, size, colors, and labels, are part of the URL. For example, the following is the URL for one of the chart images shown previously in Figure 1. The URL in Listing 1 was split into multiple lines so it can fit on the page.

Listing 1. An example of Google Image Charts URL
http://chart.apis.google.com/chart?chl=|||&chco=ff0000|0000ff|800000|00ff00
                                  &cht=bvs&chs=40x40&chbh=3,2,3
                                  &chds=0,2000&chf=bg,s,FFFFFF00
                                  &chd=t:1735.92,1335.08,1582.08,1555.08

The URL parameters used in Listing 1 are explained as follows.

  • chl=||| - specifying empty string for labels to suppress them.
  • chco=ff0000|0000ff|800000|00ff00 - the color for the four bars corresponding to 2008,2009,2010,2011 respectively.
  • cht=bvs - vertical bar chart.
  • chs=40x40 - the size of the generated image. This could even be made to vary based on total sales.
  • chbh=3,2,3 - the width of each bar, space between bars and space between groups. All in number of pixels. In the example, the last value is not used even though it must still be specified.
  • chf=bg,s,FFFFFF00 - the white background is to be made transparent.
  • chs=0,2000 - the data range.
  • chd=t:1735.92,1335.08,1582.08,1555.08 - the comma-separated list of values to chart.

The URL parameter names are abbreviated, but they are fairly easy to figure out. They all start with the ch prefix. For example, the one specifying label ends with l; the one specifying the chart type ends with t. The Resources section contains links to the Google Charts documentation.

Most of the URL parameters are the same for all chart images appearing in the previous sample map and they are hard coded. The only part of the URL which varies from customer to customer is the height of each bar corresponding to the sales amount for each of the four years from 2008 to 2011. In the URL shown in Listing 1, the sales amounts are the comma separated numbers in the parameter chd=t:1735.92,1335.08,1582.08,1555.08. You will see how the chd parameter could be generated dynamically.

Data Mashup to generate Chart Images URLs

The data mashup to generate the Google Image Charts URLs is fairly simple and it uses the following two input feeds.

  1. An ATOM feed in Navteq widget format where each entry element corresponds to a customer. As shown in Listing 2, it is also assumed that each entry carries with it the customer ID.
    Listing 2. ATOM feed in Navteq widget format
    <feed xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom">
       ::::::::::
    <entry><content>
       <Info>IBM<br>555 Bailey Avenue San Jose CA</Info>
       <Data>1060</Data>
       <Address>-121.7484391,37.1954075</Address>
       <Icon>1</Icon>
    </content></entry>
       :::::::::::::::::
    </feed>

    Note that in the previous example, the customer ID is carried in the Data element, and is the event data that is passed to other widgets when the marker is clicked.
  2. An ATOM feed containing yearly sales from 2008 to 2011 parameterized by customer ID, as shown in Listing 3.
    Listing 3. Parameterized ATOM feed for yearly sales
    <feed xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom">
      ::::::::::
    <entry>:::<content><year>2008</year><totalAmt>1735.92</totalAmt></content></entry>
    <entry>:::<content><year>2009</year><totalAmt>1335.08</totalAmt></content></entry>
    <entry>:::<content><year>2010</year><totalAmt>1582.08</totalAmt></content></entry>
    <entry>:::<content><year>2011</year><totalAmt>1555.08</totalAmt></content></entry>
    </feed>

On a high level, the Data Mashup shown in Figure 2 will add/modify the Icon element in each entry of the Navteq widget feed. It will dynamically generate a Google Image Charts URL using the sales data for each customer. The data from the two input feeds are brought into the Builder using two Source operators.

Figure 2. Data Mashup for Chart Images as markers
screen shows operators in Mashup Center

The default Repeating Entry (on the Advanced Tab of the Source operator) in the yearly sales feed is changed from entry to feed. They are then both connected to a ForEach operator. Ensure that the Navteq widget formatted feed is the master and the yearly sales feed is the detail feed. For each entry element in the master feed, the customer ID is passed as parameter to the detail feed to retrieve the sales data for that customer. These three operators are shown on the left of Figure 2, shown previously.

The ForEach operator will inject the complete sales feed for each customer into each entry element. The output of the ForEach operator is then passed to the Transform operator. As shown in Figure 3, you can see the structure of the entry element injected by the ForEach operator on the right (Input) side of the Transform operator.

Figure 3. Transform operator for each customer location entry
screen shows input on left, output on right pane

You are now ready to generate the Google Image Charts URLs.

Generating the chd URL parameter

Generating the constant part of the Google Image Charts URLs is simple. Use the concat function and provide the chart URL parameters as one or more text strings. Remember, you have injected the complete feed with multiple entries, each containing the sales amount for the year from 2008 to 2011. The tricky part is to convert the sales amounts appearing as text from the four separate entry elements into a single comma-separated string. This is done by using the String-join function as shown in Figure 4. You just need to select the element containing the sales amount as the first argument to the String-join function and specify comma as the second parameter.

Figure 4. String-join function to get sales amount as comma separated list
screen cap: shows value for string-join function

This completes the data mashup and you can see the output in Listing 4.

Listing 4. Output from data mashup
<feed xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom">
   ::::::::::
<entry><content>
   <Info>IBM<br>555 Bailey Avenue San Jose CA</Info>
   <Data>1060</Data>
   <Address>-121.7484391,37.1954075</Address>
   <Icon>
http://chart.apis.google.com/chart?chl=|||& ... &chd=t:1735.92,1335.08,1582.08,1555.08
   </Icon>
</content></entry>
   :::::::::::::::::
</feed>

You can find a version similar to what is previously described built out on Lotus Greenhouse.

Google Chart Tools API

The Google Image Chart works great but requires data to be sent to the Google server for rendering. This might not be appropriate for all applications. Google Chart Tools also provide a JavaScript charting API package that, for most of the common chart types, render the visualization on the browser without having to send the data to the Google server.

In addition, the JavaScript charting API package can expose events that enable you to connect them to other widgets to create complex mashup applications. In the Resources section, you can find the link to the Google Charts API documentation. According to the documentation, charts are rendered using HTML5/SVG technology to provide cross-browser compatibility (including VML for older IE versions), and cross platform portability to iPhones, iPads and Android.

For the remainder of the article shows the process of building a very simple widget that wraps the Google Charting JavaScript package. Again, it is assumed that you are familiar with the basics of developing an iWidget. If you are interested in using the widget, you can download the widget from Downloads section, and skip to the next section.

A simple widget that integrates with Google Chart Tools API

A widget is specified by its definition XML file. Listing 5 shows the more important section from the widget definition XML file.

Listing 5. Excerpt from widget definition XML file
<iw:iwidget name="sample.mashupcenter.GoogleChart"
            xmlns:iw="http://www.ibm.com/xmlns/prod/iWidget"
            allowInstanceContent="true"
            supportedModes="view edit"
            mode="view" 
            iScope="sample.mashupcenter.GoogleChart"
            lang="en">

<iw:resource uri="GoogleChart.js" />


<iw:event id="DataUrl" eventDescName="DataUrlDesc"
          handled="true" onEvent="handleDataURL" />  
<iw:eventDescription  id="DataUrlDesc" payloadType="text"
          description="Url to retrieve Data" lang="en" /> 

<iw:event eventDescName="desc_chartClicked" id="chartClicked"
          published="true"/>
<iw:eventDescription lang="en" id="desc_chartClicked"
          description="A part of the chart was clicked" payloadType="text"/>

<iw:content mode="view">
<![CDATA[
    <div  id="_IWID_ChartArea"></div>
]]>
</iw:content>

The iWidget's iScope attribute defines the name of the JavaScript Dojo class that implements the widget. The iresource element specifies the JavaScript file containing the Dojo class specified in the iScope attribute. Files specified using the iresource element will be loaded before the widget is instantiated. The following two events are defined.

  1. DataUrl - the event has the attribute called handled which indicates it as a receive event for changing the charting data URL. The attribute onEvent defines the JavaScript method that handles reloading the data when it receives a new URL. This allows the widget to change what is charted dynamically.
  2. chartClicked - the event has the attribute published which indicates that it is a send event. As the name suggests, it will be fired when the chart is clicked.

The content element with mode attribute set to view defines the HTML area for displaying the chart in view mode. It is very simple and consists of an empty div. Note that it has an ID attribute consisting of the string _IWID_ChartArea. The special _IWID_ prefix will be replaced with the actual widget instance ID generated by the framework when the widget is instantiated. This covers the most important part of the definition file. You can see the complete widget definition XML and JavaScript file by downloading the widget zip file from the Downloads section.

The following section explains JavaScript implementation.

Downloading Google Chart Tools API packages

The first thing you need to do in the JavaScript implementation of the widget is to download the JavaScript package from Google. There are two libraries involved.

  • The Google AJAX API library - This API is used to load other libraries and handle some core functionality such as event handling. This JavaScript library is a common API used to load the Google Visualization library and other Google libraries like Search and Data API as well.
  • The Google Visualization libraries - The corechart library includes common classes and methods used to create and handle visualizations. It also includes several common chart classes for Pie and Bar etc. For your purpose, you will also be downloading the additional libraries for geochart and gauge.

The first package, Google AJAX API, is downloaded dynamically by inserting a script tag to the mashup page, and is not elaborated upon further here. You can see how this is done by looking at the GoogleChart.js implementation file. To download the Google Visualization libraries, as explained previously, you need to download it using the Google AJAX API. This is done in the _loadVisualization function shown in Listing 6.

Listing 6. loadVisualization function
    _loadVisualization: function()
    {
        if ( !window[ 'google'] ) {
            setTimeout( dojo.hitch( this, this._loadVisualization), 500);
        } else {
            try {
                // Load the Visualization API corechart package developed by Google.
                // Set a callback to run when the Google Visualization API is loaded.
                google.load( 'visualization', '1'
                           , { 'callback' : dojo.hitch(this, this._doneLoading)
                             , 'packages':['corechart', 'geochart' , 'gauge']}
                           );

                // google.setOnLoadCallback(  dojo.hitch(this, this._doneLoading)   ); 
            } catch ( e ) {
                this.debugTrace("GoogleChart _loadVisualization exception=" + e.message );
            }
        }		

    },

First thing to note in the previous function is that you have to test and make sure the Google AJAX API (if ( !window[ 'google'] )) has been loaded before you could use google.load to download the visualization libraries. If not, you need to set a timer and wait for the downloading to complete before trying again. The other thing to note is that you need to specify the callback in your call to google.load rather than making a separate call to google.setOnLoadCallback.

Widget configuration and rendering

Once all the necessary libraries have been loaded, creating the visualization is fairly straightforward. you just need to know the type of visualization, where to get the input data and customizations like title, color, and so on. Figure 5 shows the HTML form for collecting this configuration information in Edit mode. The HTML fragment that generates the form is contained in the widget definition file, which was part of the detail that was skipped over.

Figure 5. Configuration gathered in Edit settings
screen has input fields for data url, chart type, and chart options

Most charting package provides a wide range of options for customizing the visualization. Google Chart Tools API is no different. Given the large number of options available, you can choose to provide individual UI controls for entering these values. Instead, a text box is provided here to enter the charting options as a JSON string. Consult the documentation for each chart type to determine what options are available. You can find links to the charting documentation and the JSON format in the Resources section.

Assuming that the configuration information is provided, you render the desired visualization in the _drawChart function shown in Listing 7. It first calls the convenience function createVisualizationObj to create an instance of the Google visualization object of the specified chart type. According to the Google Chart API documentation, "There is one event that any selectable chart should fire: the select event." To listen to the select event, register _cbSelectHandler to the Google visualization object as the select event callback function. Next, the chart options JSON string is parsed by calling the dojo.fromJson function to convert it into a JavaScript object. Finally, the chart is rendered by calling the draw method with the data and the chart options as parameters.

Listing 7. _drawChart function
    // called when data received or onSizeChange
    _drawChart: function( )
    {
        ::::::::::::::::::::

        this.googleVisObj = this.createVisualizationObj( this.ChartType  );
        // "select" is the only event common to all visualization
        google.visualization.events.addListener( this.googleVisObj
                                               , 'select'
                                               , dojo.hitch(this,this._cbSelectHandler));
        :::::::::::::::::::::

        var options    = dojo.fromJson( this.ChartOption );
        options.width  = this.width;
        options.height = this.height;

        ::::::::::::::::::::

        this.googleVisObj.draw(this.gDataTable, options );

        ::::::::::::::::::::
    },

Event handling

The select handler function _cbSelectHandler is called whenever a selectable part of the chart is clicked. Unlike other Google Chart events, the handler function is not called with any parameter. To find out what has been selected, the getSelection() on the Google Visualization object needs to be called to retrieve an array of objects describing the selected data elements. Besides the pies in a Pie chart or the bars in a Bar chart, other components such as the legend could be selectable as well. In the current implementation, only a selection of visual elements corresponding to a single cell in the data is supported. As shown in Listing 8, cell refers to a cell in a table which is the input data format for all chart types.

Listing 8. Handler function
    // The select event does not pass any properties or objects to the handler
    _cbSelectHandler: function(  ) {
        this.debugTrace( "GoogleChart select event"  );

        var  selections = this.googleVisObj.getSelection();
        if ( !selections || selections.length < 1 ) return; // ignore if nothing selected

        // pick first of returned object array describing the selected data elements
        var  selection  = selections[0];

        // If both row and column are specified, the selected element is a cell.
        // If only row is specified, the selected element is a row. If only column
        // is specified, the selected element is a column.
        // we will only handle cell i.e. not legend selection which returns the column
        // use typeof to handle 0 being a legitimate return value!
        if (   typeof( selection.row ) != undefined
           &&  typeof( selection.column ) != undefined ) {
            // first column, index 0, is always x value
            var eventData = this.gDataTable.getValue( selection.row, 0 );
            this.iContext.iEvents.fireEvent( "chartClicked", null, eventData );
        }
    },

To determine if a cell is clicked or selected, verify that the returned selection object has both row and column property. In this implementation, the first column from the row identified by the selection object is returned as event data of the chartClicked event.

Input data handling

As mentioned in the preceding section, all charts accept their data in a table. Each column is of a single data type which must be explicitly specified. Consistent with all other out-of-the-box widgets, the Google Chart widget described here will accept any Atom feed as input. What is different here is the requirement of an additional metadata element added to the root feed element. The child elements of the metadata element must be a subset of the elements contained in each entry/content element of the feed. Listing 9 shows the input feed for the GeoMap example that is described in the Using the Google Chart widget to create a GeoMap section.

Listing 9. ATOM feed for the GeoMap
<feed xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom">
  ::::::::::::::::::::
  
  <metadata>
	<Country>string</Country>
	<Popularity>number</Popularity>
  </metadata>
  
  <entry>
    <content>
        <Country>United States</Country>
        <Popularity>430</Popularity>
    </content>
  </entry>

  ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

</feed>

Note that the order of occurrence of the child elements must be the same, and the value can be either string or number. Additional data types like date or time are currently not supported. The data type information and the actual data in each entry of the ATOM feed needs to be extracted and converted into a Google DataTable object, the format required by the Google Visualization package. This is done in the function dataFromNodeList which is partially shown in Listing 10. Since the logic is fairly straight forward, it will not be elaborated further here.

Listing 10. dataFromNodeList
    dataFromNodeList: function( nodeList, columnList )
    {
        var  dataTab = new google.visualization.DataTable();
        for ( var k = 0  ;  k < columnList.length  ;  k++ )
            dataTab.addColumn( columnList[k].type, columnList[k].name );
        :::::::::::::
    }

You can find the complete implementation by downloading the widget zip file from the Downloads section. The widget zip file also contains a readme file with additional usage information. This completes the brief description of the internals of the Google Chart widget. The next section describes how to use the widget.

Using the Google Chart widget to create a GeoMap

In this section, you want to display data related to coffee consumption in selected countries using the Google Chart widget. The sample data is contained in a CSV file called Coffee_Popularity.csv, included in the Downloads section.

  1. Upload the CSV file and create an ATOM feed using the IBM Mashup Center (IMC). To use the ATOM feed as input to the Google Chart widget, you need to add a metadata section as previously shown in Listing 9. You can easily do this using the Data Mashup Builder.
  2. As shown in Figure 6, to create the data mashup, use a Source operator to bring the CSV feed that you created earlier into the editor. Connect the Source operator to the Publish operator, where the required <metadata> section for the Google Chart widget can be created.
    Figure 6. Simple Data Mashup to create the ATOM feed required for the Google Chart widget
    Shows source operator connected to publish operator
  3. Starting with IMC v3.0, the Publish operator allows you to create any desired XML formats, either by manually adding elements to the final output tree or importing an existing template. In this exercise, since only three elements and the corresponding text nodes need to be created, you can do them manually. As shown in Figure 7, click Publish properties and select Custom for Header, and ATOM for Feed Type sections. Right-click the root element, in this case <feed>, and select New Element to create the <metadata> element. Press Enter.
    Figure 7. Publish operator, create a <metadata> element
    New Element selected manually for the Publish operator.
  4. Follow the same pattern to create the child elements. Right-click the <metadata> element and create the child elements <Country> and <Popularity> as shown in Figure 8.
    Figure 8. Publish operator, create child elements under <metadata> element
    Publish operator, create required child elements Country and Popularity
  5. As shown in Figure 9, right-click the <Country> and <Popularity> elements, select New Text, and add a text node under each of them.
    Figure 9. Publish operator, create text nodes under child elements
    Publish operator create other child elements
  6. As shown in Figure 10, create text node string for <Country>, and for <Popularity> create it as number.
    Figure 10. Publish operator, text node creation
    Publish operator create other child elements called string and number.
  7. The <metadata> section in the feed header has now been created. You now need to attach the repeating elements coming from the previous operator to complete the feed. This can be done by right-clicking the <feed> (root element) and selecting Attach repeating element, as shown in Figure 11. Select the entry element in the subsequent dialog, and then click Attach to complete the task. The repeating elements are now attached and are part of the final feed.
    Figure 11. Publish operator, attach repeating element
    Shows Attach the repeating elements selected in the Details for the Publish operator (publish1) dialog.
    Furthermore, you may choose to update the <title> element under the <feed> element to give a name for the ATOM feed. This completes the feed creation, and the generated output was shown previously in Listing 9.
    Note: For large feeds with many elements, it is a good idea to execute the feed first and copy one of the entries into a text editor, and then use that to create a XML template first with the <metadata> section. Then import this XML template into the Publish operator and attach the repeating entries from the previous operator to complete the feed.
  8. Now that the feed is ready, it is time to render the feed in the Google Chart widget. Create a page in the Mashup Builder and add the Google Chart widget to the page. Go to the widget settings and add the URL for the data mashup created previously to the Data URL section. From the Chart Type drop-down, select Geo Chart. Finally in the Chart Options section, add the required JSON to customize the Geo Map and save the widget settings. Use {backgroundColor:"#CFECEC"} as the JSON to provide a background color to the chart. There are many chart options that could be provided as JSON. Please refer to the Google Geo Chart docs in the Resources section for more details. Figure 12 shows what the rendered widget will look like.
    Figure 12. Geo map rendered in Google Chart widget
    shows world map with countries colored according to a value scale
    As seen previously, creating the ATOM feed to render in a Google Chart widget is simple. Moreover, the same format can be used to render other chart types. Figure 13 shows additional charting examples using the same data mashup feed.
    Figure 13. Different chart types rendered in Google Chart widget using the same feed
    Pie Chart, bar chart, area chart, and columns chart created using Google Chart widget
    These charts are created just by selecting a different chart type in the Edit settings dialog of the widget!

Conclusion

This article took you through the basic steps of using the Data Mashup Builder to generate Google Chart Image URLs as well as data feeds for the Google Chart widget. You now have additional visualization options beyond what is available with the out-of-the-box widgets.

For those who would like to try widget development, there are many potential areas for improving the widget. As a start, the Google Chart Tools API has additional visualization libraries not included in this package. The widget could be changed to load them in. Another improvement would be the inclusion of charting options in the data feed allowing for dynamic generation. This would allow attributes like title to vary with input parameters.


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DescriptionNameSize
Sample for this articleGoogleChartDownloadPkg.zip10KB

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ArticleTitle=How to use Google Chart Tools with IBM Mashup Center
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