Before you start
Learn what to expect from this tutorial, and how to get the most out of it.
About this series
The Emacs editing environment is a favorite of UNIX® developers. It's known around the world as the king of editors, but many users find it has a bit of a learning curve. The Emacs environment doesn't seem intuitive at first glance, and it doesn't work like other editors and word processors. But learning Emacs doesn't have to be difficult. Once you get going, you'll see how intuitive it is and become more comfortable with it after each use. This tutorial series shows you the way, taking you from the basics of Emacs, such as its features, philosophy, key-command layout, and methods for editing text, through many of its powerful editing features.
After completing this series, you'll be able to comfortably use Emacs for everyday editing, be well on your way to Emacs proficiency, and have a good feel for many of the advanced capabilities of Emacs.
About this tutorial
This tutorial, the second in a series, demonstrates how to use some of the vital features for text editing and introduces the concept of modes, showing you what to use them for, how to invoke them, and which popular modes you're liable to use in your normal editing. It also describes a special mode for defining abbreviations as useful shorthand and explains how to use some of the text-editing features that work regardless of mode -- including important text manipulation commands, the search and replace facility, and the built-in spell checker.
The primary objective of this tutorial is to take users who are already familiar with the basics of the Emacs editor, such as its manner of keyboard input and the paradigm of buffers, and illustrate some of its essential but more intermediate features, including editing modes, incremental search, and other important Emacs text manipulation commands and facilities.
After completing this tutorial, you will have a firm knowledge of the editing modes of Emacs and how to utilize these various text-manipulation features in Emacs.
The only prerequisite for this tutorial is that you already have a basic understanding of Emacs, which you can gain by taking the first tutorial in this series.
Although this tutorial is written for all levels of UNIX expertise, it's helpful if you have at least a rudimentary understanding of the UNIX filesystem:
- Filesystem hierarchy
This tutorial requires a user account on any UNIX-based system that has a recent copy of Emacs installed.
There are several varieties of Emacs; the original and most popular is GNU Emacs, which is published online by the GNU Project (see Resources).
You should have a recent copy of GNU Emacs -- one that is at version 20 or greater. Versions 20 and 21 are the most commonly available, and development snapshots of version 22 are also available. This tutorial works with any of these versions for Emacs. If your system is running something older, it's time to upgrade.
To know what version of Emacs you have running, use the GNU-style
$ emacs --version GNU Emacs 22.214.171.124 Copyright (C) 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc. GNU Emacs comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. You may redistribute copies of Emacs under the terms of the GNU General Public License. For more information about these matters, see the file named COPYING. $
Emacs is classified as a modeless editor, meaning that unlike editors such as vi, there is no special command mode for running editor commands or insert mode for inserting text into the buffer -- as you saw in the previous tutorial in this series, both commands and text insertion can be done at any time.
However, Emacs does have its own kind of editing modes, which are functions that extend its capabilities or change the way some features work. Modes are generally written for editing a certain type or class of data, such as regular documents (written in any of the Indo-European languages), source code in a particular computer programming language (C, Fortran, Lisp, and so forth), text formatted a certain way (outlines, e-mail messages, usenet articles, character-based illustrations, and so forth) or in a markup language (Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Nroff, TeX, and Extensible Markup Language (XML)). There's even a mode for editing non-text (binary) data. Additionally, many special modes for other kinds of data and system processes are accessible through Emacs, including network connections and Internet Relay Chat (IRC), shell sessions, and the UNIX filesystem itself.
Modes are classified as either major or minor. The major mode dictates the main editing behavior and is applied only to that buffer in the current editing session. Every buffer always has one, and only one, major mode active at any one time.
Although a buffer can only have one major mode active at any time, you can switch between major modes whenever you like. Specialized major modes offer extra functionality and aids (such as context highlighting and colorization) that can help when you're editing certain kinds of documents, but you're not required to select a particular mode to edit a certain kind of file or document -- a C program source code file might be edited in any mode for editing text just as it might be done in the special mode available for editing C programs.
Minor modes normally offer some feature or capability not associated with any particular major mode. Think of them as toggles that control features: Calling a minor mode by its function name turns that minor mode on or off, and you can have many minor modes turned on at any one time.
Minor modes include Overwrite mode (described in the first tutorial in this series), RCS mode for managing files checked into the revision control system (RCS), and Auto Fill mode to handle automatic word wrapping. All these minor modes and many others like them can be active at any one time.
This section of the tutorial shows you what you need to know to use the Emacs modes successfully:
- How to know which modes are active
- How to get a description of the current modes and their capabilities
- How to invoke a mode
- Which modes you should know about
See which modes are active
As described in the first tutorial in this series, the highlighted bar near the bottom of the Emacs window, called the mode line, tells you all about the current buffer -- including which modes are currently active. The current modes are indicated in parentheses toward the right side of the mode line. The abbreviated name of the major mode is listed first, followed by the abbreviated names of any minor modes.
When you start Emacs with no files, you're in the scratch buffer. By default, this buffer is opened with Lisp Interaction mode, which is a special mode for the evaluation of Lisp code.
See for yourself by starting Emacs in the usual way, and look at what's written in the mode line.
Any time you change modes, you'll see it reflected in the mode line. Try it
now: Press the Ins key to turn on Overwrite mode, and notice how the mode
line changes. (The Ins key is bound to the
Press Ins again to turn off Overwrite mode.
When a minor mode is enabled, it's normally indicated inside the parentheses, right after the major mode. However, not all minor modes have this indicator -- some minor modes are self-evident, such as Tool Bar mode, which displays the graphical tool bar at the top of the Emacs frame. Other minor modes in newer versions of Emacs are so minor (and always on) that it would only clutter the display to have them all shown; for example, the purpose of the Unify 8859 On Encoding minor mode is to provide an encoding unification for the various ISO 8859 character sets, which is useful for internationalization.
Additionally, some modes offer extra indicators that appear in the mode line. Line Number mode, for instance, is indicated by an L followed by the line number in the buffer where the cursor is currently located.
Get a description of the current mode
describe-mode function, which is bound to
C-h m, to get a description of the current mode. When
you run this function, a new help buffer opens that lists all the key bindings
that are special to the current major mode in the buffer you typed it in
followed by any bindings that apply to any of the minor modes that are on.
Try it now by typing
C-h m, as in
Figure 1. List the key bindings applicable to current Emacs modes
As you can see, one of the special bindings for Lisp Interaction mode is the Tab key. In this mode, Tab doesn't move the cursor to the next tab stop as you'd expect on a typewriter or in a word-processor application; as the mode description says, it indents the current line of Lisp code. Because you haven't written any Lisp code in this buffer, Tab does nothing -- try it and see.
The default mode
Although the scratch buffer is usually set to Lisp Interaction mode, that's not
the default Emacs mode. To find out what is, switch to a new buffer: Type
C-x b and give the name lamb.txt as the name of the
buffer. Get rid of the help buffer by typing
You'll see that your new lamb.txt buffer has a new major mode, Fundamental. This is the default mode for Emacs buffers. It's the most plain and simple of all Emacs modes, with the fewest special key bindings and settings. Here, the Tab key works as you'd expect it to.
Go ahead and get a description of the modes by typing
You'll see the following for the description of Fundamental mode:
Fundamental mode: Major mode not specialized for anything in particular. Other major modes are defined by comparison with this one.
C-x 1 again to get rid of the help window.
When you open the contents of an existing file in a new buffer, Emacs selects a mode for you based on the file type. If you open a file containing C program source code, C mode will be major mode; and, if you open a file containing text in a spoken language such as English, Emacs sets Text mode as the major mode.
You can always change the mode, and you can configure all these settings so that certain files or certain types of buffers always open in a particular mode. Table 1 describes popular Emacs modes and gives their function names.
Table 1. Popular Emacs modes
|Fundamental||Major||This mode is the default Emacs mode with minimal settings and bindings.|
|Text||Major||This mode is the basic mode for editing text.|
|Abbrev||Minor||This mode is for making and using abbreviations (see Abbrev mode).|
|Auto Fill||Minor||This mode is for automatic word wrap and filling long lines and paragraphs.|
|Overwrite||Minor||This mode is for overwriting any existing text in a buffer instead of inserting text at point. It's bound by default to the Ins key.|
|C||Major||This mode is for editing C program source code.|
|Line Number||Minor||This mode is for displaying the current line number.|
|Lisp Interaction||Major||This mode is for editing and compiling Lisp code.|
|Paragraph-Indent Text||Major||This mode is a special variation of the Text mode where the paragraph-movement commands work for paragraphs whose first lines are indented, and not just for paragraphs separated by blank lines.|
|TeX||Major||This mode is for editing TeX documents.|
|WordStar||Major||This special mode provides the key bindings of the WordStar editor.|
Set the mode
Emacs modes are functions. To invoke one, you type
M-x and then give the name of the mode.
Try invoking Text mode in your new buffer now: Type
M-x text-mode and press Enter. You'll
immediately see the change in the mode line, where Fundamental is replaced by
Type in Text mode
Text mode is a basic mode with few changes from the Fundamental mode, so its benefits are subtle; but it's a good base for editing text in spoken languages, such as English. Many of the special modes for editing certain kinds of text or documents from TeX mode to Outline mode are based on Text mode.
Try typing some text in your new buffer, continuing the theme of William Blake from the last tutorial:
Little lamb, who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee?
In Text mode, the Tab key is defined to indent paragraphs relative to the previous indentations of the paragraph, if any; if the previous paragraph isn't indented, pressing Tab inserts a literal tab character, moving point to the next tab stop.
To see how Text mode handles tabs, type a few lines with tabs and spaces:
Type two spaces on the next new line in your buffer, type the text
Gave thee life, and baid thee feed, and press Enter to end this new paragraph.
Press Tab -- notice how point is lined up with the line (paragraph) above it -- type
By the stream and o'er the mead;, and press Enter.
Type a new line with no indentation:
Gave thee something of delight,and press Enter
Press Tab. Notice how you're shifted out many spaces -- a literal tab character has been inserted. Type the line
Softest something, woolly, bright;and press Enter.
Gave thee such a tender voice,and press Enter.
Press Tab. Another tab character is inserted. Type the line
Making all the vales rejoice?
Your buffer should now look like Figure 2.
Figure 2. Type tabs in Text mode
Table 2 shows the key bindings that are set by Text mode.
Table 2. Text mode key bindings
|Key||Description or function|
|Esc||Prefix for |
|Esc Tab, M-Tab|
|Esc S, M-S|
|Esc s, M-s|
An Emacs abbrev is a special word defined by a particular string. When an abbrev is typed in a buffer (and Abbrev mode is turned on), the abbrev is expanded or replaced by the string it's defined by.
Abbrev mode (a minor mode) allows you to make quick shorthand for long strings or phrases, but you can probably think of other ways that you can use it, too.
Define an abbrev
The easy way to add abbrevs is to run one of the inverse-add abbrev functions,
inverse-add-local-abbrev. These functions let you
define a word in the buffer as an abbrev; the first applies the abbrev to any
buffer you open in your current Emacs session, and the second defines the abbrev
only to buffers with the same major mode as the current buffer. The latter is
useful for defining abbrevs that are only appropriate to certain modes, such as
for long variable names in a buffer containing program source code.
Try defining an abbrev so that it works across all buffers:
On the next new line, type an abbreviated word,
li,so that point is at the end of the word (after the i).
inverse-add-global-abbrevfunction by typing
C-x a i g.
Define your abbrev where prompted in the minibuffer: Type
Little lamband press Enter.
Notice that the abbrev you type in the buffer is replaced by its definition and point moved to the beginning of the definition.
Now move point to a new line and make a new abbrev the way you just did, by
x (abbrevs aren't case-sensitive) and using
He is to define it.
You've defined two abbrevs. However, as you can see from the mode line, Abbrev
mode is off. Turn it on: Type
M-x abbrev-mode. Erase
those two lines with the definitions you just made and then type the code from
Listing 1. Sample lines with abbrevs
Li, I'll tell thee, Li, I'll tell thee: x called by thy name, For he calls himself a lamb. x meek, and x mild;
The abbrevs for
expand as you type them so, when you're done, the buffer looks like
Figure 3. Abbrevs expanded in an Emacs buffer
This example showed how to define abbrevs that work in all buffers. To define
an abbrev so that it only works in buffers set to the current mode, use
C-x a i
Use a word as an abbrev definition
You can also define abbrevs for a single word in the buffer. This is particularly useful when you're writing program source code and you've just typed a long variable.
To define an abbrev for a word, use
C-x a g when
point is after the word. Once you've done that, you're prompted in the
minibuffer for the abbrev to replace that word when Abbrev mode is on.
Try it now:
He became a little childon a new line.
When point is immediately after the word child, type
C-x a g.
cin the minibuffer and press Enter.
End the current line with a period and then type a few more lines to watch the expansion occur:
. We are called by his name. I a c, and thou a lamb,
Notice that Emacs recognizes the c followed by a comma as an abbrev, but not the c in called.
Likewise, to define an abbrev in such a way that it applies only to the current
major mode, use
C-x a l.
Erase an abbrev
To kill all the abbrevs you've defined in your session, use the
Try it: Type
Now none of the abbrevs you've defined (
c) expand to their
definitions, in any buffer, regardless of the mode. Type two more lines to
Little lamb, God bless thee! Little lamb, God bless thee!
In this section, learn some of the special commands and key bindings for editing text, most of which work regardless of the current major mode.
Indent and fill text
Regions can be automatically indented in different ways. The
indent-rigidly function, which you run by typing
C-x C-i, indents all lines in the region to the right
by one space.
C-Spaceto set the mark at the bottom of the buffer.
Move point to the beginning of the line that reads, "Little lamb, I'll tell thee," to mark the last 10 lines in the buffer as the region.
C-x C-ito indent the region one space.
C-x C-iagain to indent the region another space.
Just as you can run
indent-rigidly multiple times,
you can give a certain number of spaces to indent by preceding it with
C-u followed by a number; use a negative number to
move the region toward the left.
Indent the region by 10 more spaces: Type
C-u 10 C-x C-i.
Take the indentation back five spaces: Type
C-u -5 C-x C-i.
After this, your buffer should look like Figure 4.
Figure 4. Inserting rigid indentation
indent-rigidly function is also bound to the
To fill the region, justify the text with a ragged right margin and run
fill-region function. A similar function,
fill-paragraph, applies to the current paragraph. It
has a keyboard equivalent of
Try it: Type
M-x fill-region. Notice that once the
region is filled, point is moved to just after the region.
Like any of the Emacs formatting commands, the commands for indentation and
filling can be undone with the
undo function, which
was described in the first tutorial in this series. Try it once now to undo the
region fill: Type
Just as you can add or remove vertical space with indentations, you can also
take out any existing horizontal space. To do this, use the
M-\ (that's the Meta key followed by the \ key). It
removes all leading whitespace between the first nonspace character anywhere to
the left of point and the first nonspace character to the right of point, no
matter where point happens to be in the space.
Go ahead and try it. Take out all the leading spaces in the buffer by moving
point to the space on each line and typing
moving to the next line with spaces.
To add a line of vertical space, you can always press Enter, but doing
so also moves point. To add vertical space without moving point, run the
open-line function, which is bound to
Try it: Move down eight lines from the top of the buffer so that point is at
the beginning of the line reading "Little lamb, I'll tell thee," and type
C-o. Now your buffer should look like
Figure 5. Remove horizontal space and insert vertical space
Emacs has commands for transposition, which allow you to exchange the characters, words, or lines immediately after point with those immediately before point. These are good commands for making quick corrections in text.
transpose-chars function, to transpose the single
character before point and the single character after point; use
function, to transpose the single words before and after point.
Try it now:
Move point to the o in For and then type
C-tto transpose the o and F characters.
C-tagain to transpose the r and F characters.
Move point back to the F and type
C-tonce to move the F back one character.
Move point back to the F again and type
C-tonce more to move the F back to the beginning of the line.
M-tto transpose the words For and he.
M-tagain to transpose the words For and calls.
Move point between he and For and type
M-tagain to transpose them.
Move point between calls and For and type
M-tagain to transpose them.
M-tone last time to transpose calls and he.
C-x C-t, transposes the line at point and the line
Try it: Move point to the beginning of the line that begins "I a child" and
Note that you can also precede any of these commands with a numeric value by
using the universal argument,
C-u: C-u 2 C-x C-t
transposes the line at point with the line two lines ahead of point.
Another useful command,
the line at point with the previous line, separated by a space character. It's
M-^, which you type by pressing and holding
Meta and using the Shift key to type a caret (^). An alternate,
C-1 M-^, joins the current line with the line that
There are several Emacs functions for converting case. The
uppercase-word function (bound to
M-u) converts to uppercase letters of all the text
beginning from point forward to the end of the word. Similarly,
downcase-word (bound to
M-l) converts everything from point to the end of the
word to lowercase letters.
Try these on the buffer:
Move point to the line that begins with "For he calls" and type
M-c M-c M-l M-c M-l M-cso that the line is properly capitalized.
Move point down to the line that begins with "We are called" and type
M-u M-u M-u M-u M-u M-uso that the entire line is converted to uppercase letters.
C-ato move point to the beginning of the line and type
C-c C-l C-l C-l C-l C-c C-lso that the line is properly capitalized.
You can operate on words before point by preceding any of these commands
with the negative-argument function,
M--, which you
type by pressing and holding the Meta key and then pressing a hyphen character
(-). You can apply the case-changing commands to the region by using the
upcase-region functions, which are bound to
C-x C-l and
Summary of text manipulation commands
Table 3 lists the various text manipulation commands you've just learned and describes their meanings.
Table 3. Emacs text manipulation commands
|Binding||Command or function||Description|
|This command indents lines in the region (or at point).|
|This command fills all paragraphs in the region.|
|This command fills the single paragraph at point.|
|This command removes any horizontal space to the right and left of point.|
|This command opens a new line of vertical space below point, without moving point.|
|This command transposes the single characters to the right and left of point.|
|This command transposes the single words to the right and left of point.|
|This command transposes the line at point with the line before it.|
|This command joins the line at point with the previous line. Preface with
|This command converts the text at point to the end of the word to uppercase letters.|
|This command converts the text at point to the end of the word to lowercase letters.|
|This command converts the region to lowercase letters.|
|This command converts the region to uppercase letters.|
Search and replace text
The commands for searching and replacing in Emacs work in all modes and are described in this section.
The basic and most popular way to search in Emacs is to use incremental search, so called because the search begins immediately, as soon as you type the first character. It searches in increments with every character you type, so if you search for the text lamb, for instance, as soon as you type the l, point moves to the next l in the buffer; and when you type the a, it moves to the first instance of la (which might or might not be the same place where the first l was found) and so on.
This is a very efficient way of searching text, because unlike applications with search-box facilities where you type a term and then press Enter (or -- worse -- you have to click the OK button), an incremental search begins the moment you type the first letter of your term. As soon as the right match is found, you can stop typing.
The most common incremental search is the
isearch-forward function, which is bound to
C-s. It searches forward from point in the buffer for
the text you give it. To repeat a search and move to the next match, type
When you reach the end of the buffer, Emacs rings the bell and prints a message
in the minibuffer that the end of the buffer has been reached. If you type
C-s again after that, the search wraps around to the
beginning of the buffer (and you're so notified in the minibuffer).
C-s. Notice how you're prompted to give a string to search for in the minibuffer.
land see how point is moved to the next l in the buffer. If you have a very recent version of Emacs, all the l characters in the buffer will also be highlighted.
eand see how point moves forward and highlights the next l and the e character right after it.
Type a space and see how point moves to the next line and highlights the le in that line.
C-sto repeat the search for le and see how point moves to the next line.
C-sto repeat the search for le and notice how Emacs tells you that the search has failed -- it's reached the end of the buffer without finding another match for the le you're searching for.
C-sto repeat the search for le anyway, wrapping around to the front of the buffer, and see how point moves to where it's found on the first line at the top.
There's also a way to search for text you see in the buffer:
C-s C-w puts the string from point forward to the end
of the word into the search buffer, and
everything from point to the end of the line into the search buffer.
Incremental searches are normally case-insensitive; however, if you specify anything but all lowercase letters in your search, then only the case you give is matched.
Backward incremental search
To search backward from point, use
C-r), searching in reverse through the
As with the forward incremental search, typing this command twice starts a
search for the text that was last searched. When you get to the top of the
C-r again wraps around to the bottom.
Try it: Type
C-r lit to search in reverse and then
C-r multiple times to wrap down to the bottom of
the buffer in reverse.
There's a way to do a non-incremental search, too. This is useful when, for instance, you want to search for a particular phrase or string that you see in the buffer, but instead of typing it, you'd rather paste it.
The non-incremental search works the same for both the forward and reverse
searches. To do it, press Enter after typing either
C-r for the search,
type the entire string to search for, and press Enter again.
C-sto start a forward search and press Enter to specify that it be done non-incrementally.
Type the word
littleand press Enter.
Sometimes you might want to search for words or phrases in a buffer and find them no matter how they happen to be spaced or formatted -- even if they're split between lines.
For instance, what if you want to match feed by in the buffer, where it's split by a newline?
Try it: Type
C-r and give feed by as the text
to search for.
Emacs quickly beeps and reports "Failing I-search" because there's a newline character between the words.
To match phrases regardless of the spacing between words, use the Emacs word
search. You can do this with either a forward or reverse incremental search --
press Enter, type
C-w, and then give the word
or phrase to search for.
Try the search again:
Move point to the top of the buffer.
C-sto start a forward search.
C-wto specify a word search.
feed byand press Enter.
The string is matched even across a newline, and point is moved to just after the By in the second line of the phrase.
You can also search for regular expressions in Emacs. To do this, run the
isearch-backward-regexp function. These functions are
respectively. Then, give a regular expression as an argument. These searches are
Try searching forward and notice how the matches change depending on how you build the regexp:
C-M-sto start a forward regexp search.
Give the regexp
l.*eand notice how the matches change for every character you type.
There are several ways to replace text in Emacs.
replace-string function prompts you for a string
to match and a string to replace it with, and it replaces all instances from
point to the end of the buffer.
Try replacing the word something with clothing throughout the buffer:
M-x replace-stringand press Enter.
somethingand press Enter.
clothingand press Enter.
After the command runs, it reports in the minibuffer how many occurrences it replaced -- in this case, two.
To delete a word or phrase throughout a buffer, run this command and replace it with nothing.
Another powerful function for replacing text is
replace-regexp, which takes a regular expression as a
string to search for and a string of text to replace it with.
Finally, you can run the
which queries for every instance of the replacement. It's bound to
M-%. Your choices for each match are described in
Table 4. Options for Emacs' query-replace function
|Space, y||Replace this match.|
|Del, n||Skip this match and move to the next.|
|Enter, q||Exit |
|.||Make this replacement and then exit
|,||Make this replacement, move point to it, and exit
|C-r||Specify a recursive edit.|
|C-w||Delete the match and recursive edit.|
|C-l||Redraw the screen with this line in the center.|
|!||Continue making all replacements without querying first.|
|E||Edit the replacement string.|
|^||Go back to the previous replacement.|
query-replace-regexp functions work similarly, but
they take a regular expression as the string to be replaced.
Summary of search and replace commands
Table 5 shows a summary of the various Emacs search and replace commands you've just learned.
Table 5. Emacs search and replace commands
|Binding||Command or function||Description|
|Incrementally search forward through the buffer for string (default is the
last search string you gave, if any); |
|Incrementally search backward through the buffer for string
(default is the last search string you gave, if any);
|Search forward through the buffer for the given word or phrase, regardless of spacing.|
|Search backward through the buffer for the given word or phrase, regardless of spacing.|
|Incrementally search forward through the buffer for a given regular expression.|
|Incrementally search backward through the buffer for a given regular expression.|
|Search for a given string from point to the end of the buffer and replace it with a given string.|
|Search for a given regular expression from point to the end of the buffer and replace it with a given string.|
|Search for a given string from point to the end of the buffer and, in each instance, query (as described in Table 4) to replace it with a given string.|
|Search for a given regular expression from point to the end of the buffer and, in each instance, query (as described in Table 4) to replace it with a given string.|
Use the spelling checker
Ispell, an interactive UNIX spelling checker, is built into Emacs and is a
powerful and convenient way to check buffers for misspelled words. The various
ispell- functions are described in this section.
Spell check a word
ispell-word function (or its equivalent key
M-$) to check the spelling of the word at
That word baid doesn't look right. Move point to it and check the
spelling by typing
Emacs doesn't recognize this word either, so it's highlighted as a misspelling;
you're given a list of suggestions in a new window above the buffer window, as
in Figure 6. Each suggestion is prefaced with a character
you can type to replace the misspelling with that suggestion. (You can also type
C-g to cancel the replacement.)
Figure 6. Correct spelling in Emacs with Ispell
Find the word you want, bid, and press the key that corresponds to it. Ispell exits and the misspelled word is replaced with the one you chose.
Spell check a region
You can also spell check the region with the
Try using the mouse to highlight the last two lines in the buffer by pressing
B1 as you drag over them (as described in
the first tutorial in this series). Then type
M-x ispell-region to spell check this highlighted
region of text.
In the minibuffer, Ispell reports that spell checking is complete and that no misspellings have been found.
Spell check a buffer
To check the spelling of the whole buffer, use the
Try running it: Type
As with all the Ispell commands, you have many options whenever you encounter a misspelling in a buffer check. They are described in Table 6.
Table 6. Ispell word-replacement commands
|character||Make the suggested replacement prefaced by (character).|
|Space||Accept this word as correct in this context.|
|i||Accept this word as correct and insert it into the personal dictionary file.|
|a||Accept this word as correct only for this Emacs session.|
|A||Accept this word as correct only for this buffer in this Emacs session.|
|r||Replace the word with a string you type (and that Ispell then rechecks).|
|R||Replace the word with a string you type (and that Ispell then rechecks)
and run a |
|l||Replace the word with a given string and do a lookup of the new string in a given dictionary file.|
|u||Insert a lowercase version of the word into the personal dictionary file.|
|m||Replace the word with a given string, save it to the personal dictionary, and then recheck the word.|
|C-l||Recenter the screen on the current line.|
|C-r||Enter a recursive edit.|
|C-z||Suspend Emacs. (In X, this iconifies the Emacs client window.)|
|x||Exit the spell check and move point back to its original position.|
|X||Exit the spell check, leaving point where it is.|
|q||Immediately quit the spell check.|
|?||Display a menu of options.|
Catch misspellings as they happen
Flyspell mode is a special minor mode that highlights misspellings as you type them. This is particularly useful when you're writing quick documents (such as e-mails) or first drafts that have to get into production quickly. When Emacs encounters a misspelling, it doesn't stop you -- you can keep on typing -- but the misspelled word is highlighted in the buffer.
Flyspell mode works by running Ispell in the background; after you turn on Flyspell mode, even the existing text in the buffer is checked and any misspellings are highlighted.
Turn on Flyspell mode: Type
Move down to the end of the first stanza and type the following two lines, with the intentional misspelling on the first line:
Little lamb, hwo made thee? Dost thou know who made thee?
Notice that Emacs didn't like Blake's antique Dost, even though you know it's right. Both it and the misspelled hwo are highlighted, as in Figure 7.
Figure 7. Use Emacs' Flyspell mode
To correct the highlighted words, use the mouse pointer to click the middle button on each of them; a menu appears with suggested words. For hwo, choose the correct who; for Dost, choose Accept (buffer) to accept the spelling as correct for this buffer.
A few more commands are bound in Flyspell mode in addition to the mouse control; a list is given in Table 7.
Table 7. Key bindings for Flyspell mode
|Correct the last misspelled word using Ispell.|
|Correct the last misspelled word automatically, with a suggestion found with Ispell.|
|Correct the previous misspelled word automatically, with a suggestion found with Ispell.|
|Display a pop-up menu with word suggestions.|
Summary of Emacs spelling commands
Table 8 summarizes the various spelling functions you've just learned for Emacs, describing their meanings and giving the default key bindings, if any.
Table 8. Spelling commands for Emacs
|Binding||Command or function||Description|
|Call Ispell to check the spelling of the word at point.|
|Call Ispell to check the spelling of the region.|
|Call Ispell to check the spelling of all the words from point to the end of the buffer.|
|Call Ispell to check the spelling of all the words in buffer in the background as you type and highlight all misspellings.|
With this tutorial to guide you, you've got a handle on many important editing concepts in Emacs, and you've learned a lot of powerful techniques along the way. You've also learned what Emacs modes are and how to use them, you learned various text-manipulation tricks -- including methods of indentation, changing case, and search and replace -- and you've learned how to use the Emacs spell checker and abbreviation facilities.
You're starting to get the hang of Emacs, but there's a lot more to it. Watch for the third installment in this series for a look at some advanced concepts.
- "Emacs editing environment": Check out other parts in this series.
- "Use free software within commercial UNIX" (developerWorks, February 2006): Learn how to install GNU Emacs on the IBM AIX operating system or another commercial UNIX.
- Emacs commands: The IBM DB2® Universal Database Information Center has a quick summary of basic Emacs commands.
- "Using Emacs for XML documents" (developerWorks, December 2001): Learn how to use the Emacs SGML and XML modes.
- GNU Project: Learn more about the GNU Project and the Free Software Foundation from its Web site.
- Check out other articles and tutorials written by Michael Stutz:
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