About this series
The typical UNIX administrator has a key range of utilities, tricks, and systems he or she uses regularly to aid in the process of administration. There are key utilities, command line chains, and scripts that are used to simplify different processes. Some of these tools come with the operating system, but a majority of the tricks come through years of experience and a desire to ease the system administrator's life. The focus of this series is on getting the most from the available tools across a range of different UNIX environments, including methods of simplifying administration in a heterogeneous environment.
All systems generate a varying quantity of log files that track and record different information about your machine. The content and utility of these files varies from system to system, but the core information provided by the files is often consistent.
For example, all UNIX and Linux machines use the syslog, a generic logging system that is used by the operating system and applications and services to log information. The syslog records a whole host of data, including logins, performance information, and failures reported by different hardware and systems. In addition to the syslog, systems also have a variety of service, environment, and application logs that record information about the machine and its operation.
Although parsing and extracting the content of the log files for information can be time consuming and sometimes complex, the wealth of information in those logs is difficult to ignore. The log file can provide hints on potential problems, faults, security lapses and, if used correctly, can even help provide warnings on load and capacity of your servers.
The location of the various log files varies from system to system. On most UNIX and Linux systems the majority of the logs are located in /var/log. For example, Listing 1 shows a list of logs located on a Gentoo Linux system.
Listing 1. Linux /var/log directory contents
$ ll /var/log total 3312 -rw-r----- 1 root root 8218 2007-11-03 06:21 dmesg -rw-rw---- 1 portage portage 650111 2008-02-02 13:01 emerge.log -rw------- 1 root root 24024 2007-11-05 07:26 faillog -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 386032 2007-09-28 14:39 genkernel.log drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2007-11-03 06:47 iptraf/ -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 292292 2008-02-03 08:07 lastlog -rw------- 1 root root 1346931 2008-02-03 08:50 messages drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 2006-08-30 17:04 news/ drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2007-09-28 13:22 portage/ drwxrwx--- 2 root portage 4096 2007-11-03 06:40 sandbox/ drwxrwx--- 2 snort snort 4096 2007-10-13 11:34 snort/ -rw-rw-r-- 1 root utmp 496896 2008-02-03 08:07 wtmp -rw-rw-rw- 1 root mc 61189 2007-06-10 11:37 Xorg.0.log -rw-rw-rw- 1 root root 61189 2007-06-10 10:40 Xorg.0.log.old
On Solaris®, IBM® AIX®, and HP-UX®, the main syslog and most of the other logs are written to files within the /var/adm directory (Listing 2).
Listing 2. Traditional UNIX /var/adm contents
$ ls -al /var/adm total 230 drwxrwxr-x 9 root sys 512 Feb 3 15:30 . drwxr-xr-x 48 root sys 1024 Feb 3 15:32 .. drwxrwxr-x 5 adm adm 512 Feb 2 16:13 acct -rw------- 1 uucp bin 0 Jan 12 18:49 aculog drwxr-xr-x 2 adm adm 512 Feb 2 16:03 exacct -r--r--r-- 1 root root 2856 Feb 3 16:10 lastlog drwxr-xr-x 2 adm adm 512 Feb 2 16:03 log -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 69065 Feb 3 16:08 messages drwxr-xr-x 2 root sys 512 Feb 2 16:09 pool drwxrwxr-x 2 adm sys 512 Feb 2 16:13 sa drwxr-xr-x 2 root sys 512 Feb 2 17:03 sm.bin -rw-rw-rw- 1 root bin 0 Jan 12 18:47 spellhist drwxr-xr-x 2 root sys 512 Feb 2 16:03 streams -rw------- 1 root root 93 Feb 3 16:08 sulog -rw-r--r-- 1 root bin 3720 Feb 3 16:14 utmpx -rw-r--r-- 1 adm adm 29760 Feb 3 16:10 wtmpx
In addition, some non-system-level messages and information are written into logs located within /var/log (Listing 3). For example, on Solaris, by default, mail debug entries are written into /var/log/syslog.
Listing 3. Additional logs in /var/log on Solaris
$ ls -al /var/log/ total 48158 drwxr-xr-x 7 root sys 512 Feb 3 16:07 . drwxr-xr-x 48 root sys 1024 Feb 3 15:32 .. -rw------- 1 root sys 0 Jan 12 18:48 authlog -rw-r--r-- 1 root other 27 Feb 2 16:17 brlog drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 512 Feb 2 16:39 gdm drwxr-xr-x 2 root sys 512 Feb 2 16:09 pool -rw-r--r-- 1 root sys 24480410 Feb 3 12:51 postrun.log drwxr-xr-x 2 root sys 512 Feb 2 16:41 swupas -rw-r--r-- 1 root other 635 Feb 2 17:25 sysidconfig.log -rw-r--r-- 1 root sys 3967 Feb 3 16:08 syslog drwxr-xr-x 3 root sys 512 Feb 2 17:25 webconsole drwxr-xr-x 2 root sys 512 Feb 2 16:37 xen -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 66171 Feb 3 16:07 Xorg.0.log -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 66256 Feb 3 16:06 Xorg.0.log.old
Of course finding the files is the least of the issues. You need to know what the files contain for the information to be of any use.
Depending on the UNIX variants, some logs may be littered about in other places, but there has been a significant attempt to standardize on log file locations to one of the directories already mentioned.
Log types and data
Log types fall into two categories, text log files that contain messages and information in a simple text format, and files that are encoded in a binary format. The former is used for most of the logs in your typical system as they are easy to write and, perhaps more importantly, easy to read. The issue with text files is that they can sometimes be difficult to extract information from in a structured way, because the text format of the files allows the information to be written in any way or structure.
The latter format is more practical for very structured information, or for information that needs to be written in a particular way or format. For the example, the utmp and wtmp data is written to a file in fixed blocks of binary data so that the information can read and be written in a quick and efficient format. Unfortunately, this means that the information is difficult to read without using special tools.
System logs (syslog)
The syslog service is a daemon that runs the background and accepts log entries and writes them to one or more individual files. All messages reported to syslog are tagged with the date, time, and hostname, and it's possible to have a single host that accepts all of the log messages from a number of hosts, writing out the information to a single file.
Messages are also identified by the service that raise the issue (for example, mail, dhcp, kernel), and a class indicating the severity of the message. The severity can be marked as info (purely for information), warning, error, critical (a serious problem that needs addressing), and even emergency (the system needs urgent help).
The service is highly configurable (generally through /etc/syslog.conf, or the equivalent), and allows you to select what classes of information to log, and where to log the information. For example, you can write all the standard information out to a file. But for critical messages, where administrators need the information right away, these messages can be sent immediately to the console. Listing 4 shows the main configuration content of the default syslog.conf file from a Solaris 10 installation.
Listing 4. Sample syslog.conf file
*.err;kern.notice;auth.notice /dev/sysmsg *.err;kern.debug;daemon.notice;mail.crit /var/adm/messages *.alert;kern.err;daemon.err operator *.alert root *.emerg * ... mail.debug ifdef('LOGHOST', /var/log/syslog, @loghost) ... ifdef('LOGHOST', , user.err /dev/sysmsg user.err /var/adm/messages user.alert 'root, operator' user.emerg * )
Because syslog is a standard logging mechanism within UNIX/Linux it is used to record a massive array of different information. This includes boot messages, login and authorization information, and service startup/shutdown. In addition, syslog is often used to record e-mail messages delivery, filesystem issues, and even DHCP leases, DNS issues, and NFS problems. Because syslog can write the data to different areas, it's not always obvious that syslog is writing the information.
The main destination for the on-disk copy of the syslog differs between UNIX variants. Many Linux solutions write the information to /var/log/messages. On AIX, Solaris, and HP-UX, the syslog is written to /var/adm/messages.
You can see a sample of /var/adm/messages from a Solaris machine in Listing 5.
Listing 5. Sample system log output
Feb 3 16:06:58 solaris2 ata: [ID 496167 kern.info] cmdk2 at ata1 target 0 lun 0 Feb 3 16:06:58 solaris2 genunix: [ID 936769 kern.info] cmdk2 is /pci@0,0/pci-ide@1f,1/ide@1/cmdk@0,0 Feb 3 16:06:59 solaris2 asy: [ID 267298 kern.notice] asy0: UART @ 3f8 scratch register: expected 0x5a, g ot 0xff Feb 3 16:06:59 solaris2 asy: [ID 702181 kern.notice] Cannot identify UART chip at 3f8 Feb 3 16:06:59 solaris2 asy: [ID 267298 kern.notice] asy1: UART @ 2f8 scratch register: expected 0x5a, got 0xff Feb 3 16:06:59 solaris2 asy: [ID 702181 kern.notice] Cannot identify UART chip at 2f8 Feb 3 16:07:01 solaris2 genunix: [ID 314293 kern.info] device pciclass,030000@2(display#0) keeps up device sd@1,0(sd#1), but the latter is not power managed Feb 3 16:07:01 solaris2 /usr/lib/power/powerd: [ID 387247 daemon.error] Able to open /dev/srn Feb 3 16:07:08 solaris2 /sbin/dhcpagent: [ID 778557 daemon.warning] configure_v4_lease: no IP broadcast specified for ni0, making best guess Feb 3 16:07:31 solaris2 sendmail: [ID 702911 mail.crit] My unqualified host name (solaris2) unknown; sleeping for retry Feb 3 16:07:32 solaris2 sendmail: [ID 702911 mail.crit] My unqualified host name (solaris2) unknown; sleeping for retry Feb 3 16:07:48 solaris2 svc.startd: [ID 652011 daemon.warning] svc:/system/webconsole:console: Method "/lib/svc/method/svc-webconsole start" failed with exit status 95. Feb 3 16:07:48 solaris2 svc.startd: [ID 748625 daemon.error] system/webconsole:console failed fatally: transitioned to maintenance (see 'svcs -xv' for details) Feb 3 16:07:55 solaris2 pseudo: [ID 129642 kern.info] pseudo-device: devinfo0 Feb 3 16:07:55 solaris2 genunix: [ID 936769 kern.info] devinfo0 is /pseudo/devinfo@0 Feb 3 16:08:31 solaris2 sendmail: [ID 702911 mail.alert] unable to qualify my own domain name (solaris2) -- using short name Feb 3 16:08:32 solaris2 sendmail: [ID 702911 mail.alert] unable to qualify my own domain name (solaris2) -- using short name
You can see in the sample output that there is a wide range of information here, from problems and issues with hardware devices through to issues with the current configuration of the mail service.
The format of the file is quite straightforward: it contains the date, hostname, service name, a unique ID (to enable the system to log multi-line messages and have them identified), and the identifier and class of the entry. The remaining text on each line is just free-form text from the system logging the error message.
The format of the file makes it easy to pull out the information you want. All the lines in the file are tagged with a unique ID and all lines are tagged with the identifier and class of the error message.
For example, you can pull out information on critical issues with the mail system by using grep to pick out the entries tagged with mail.crit:
$ grep mail.crit /var/adm/messages.
To process the detail of the individual lines within the log is more complex. Although the first few columns within the file are standardized (they are written by the syslog daemon), the format of the remainder of the line is entirely dependent on the component reporting the error message.
This can make it complex to read and parse the contents of the file, as you will need to treat each line according to the identifier and reporter. Even then, some lines will not follow a format.
Kernel log (dmesg and alog)
All UNIX and Linux systems have a log that is actually part of the kernel. In practice the log is actually a section of memory in the kernel used to record information about the kernel that may be impossible to write to disk because the information is generated before the filesystems are loaded.
For example, during the boot process, the filesystems are not accessible for writing (most kernels boot with the filesystem in read mode until the system is considered safe enough to switch to read/write mode). The data in this log contains information about the devices connected to the system and any faults and problems recorded by the system during the boot and operational process.
On some systems the information is periodically dumped into a file (/var/log/dmesg); on others it is only available by using the alog command (AIX) or dmesg (all other UNIX/Linux variants).
The information generated by the kernel is not always written out to another file, such as syslog. This can mean that certain pieces of information, such as internal data on devices and hardware, is only available through the dmesg log.
For example, Listing 6 shows some sample output from dmesg on a Gentoo Linux system. Here it is showing the main boot information, trimmed for brevity.
Listing 6. The dmesg log contents
$ dmesg Linux version 2.6.22-gentoo-r8 (email@example.com) (gcc version 4.1.2 (Gentoo 4.1.2 p1.0.1)) #1 SMP Fri Sep 28 14:22:07 GMT 2007 BIOS-provided physical RAM map: BIOS-e820: 0000000000000000 - 000000000009fc00 (usable) BIOS-e820: 0000000000100000 - 0000000020000000 (usable) 0MB HIGHMEM available. 512MB LOWMEM available. Entering add_active_range(0, 0, 131072) 0 entries of 256 used Zone PFN ranges: DMA 0 -> 4096 Normal 4096 -> 131072 HighMem 131072 -> 131072 early_node_map active PFN ranges 0: 0 -> 131072 On node 0 totalpages: 131072 DMA zone: 32 pages used for memmap DMA zone: 0 pages reserved DMA zone: 4064 pages, LIFO batch:0 Normal zone: 992 pages used for memmap Normal zone: 125984 pages, LIFO batch:31 HighMem zone: 0 pages used for memmap DMI not present or invalid. Allocating PCI resources starting at 30000000 (gap: 20000000:e0000000) Built 1 zonelists. Total pages: 130048 Kernel command line: root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc ramdisk=8192 real_root=/dev/hda3 udev Local APIC disabled by BIOS -- you can enable it with "lapic" mapped APIC to ffffd000 (0140c000) Enabling fast FPU save and restore... done. Enabling unmasked SIMD FPU exception support... done. Initializing CPU#0 CPU 0 irqstacks, hard=c054e000 soft=c052e000 PID hash table entries: 2048 (order: 11, 8192 bytes) Detected 2295.874 MHz processor. Console: colour VGA+ 80x25 Dentry cache hash table entries: 65536 (order: 6, 262144 bytes) Inode-cache hash table entries: 32768 (order: 5, 131072 bytes) Memory: 511616k/524288k available (3150k kernel code, 12100k reserved, 818k data, 264k init, 0k highmem) virtual kernel memory layout: fixmap : 0xffe17000 - 0xfffff000 (1952 kB) pkmap : 0xff800000 - 0xffc00000 (4096 kB) vmalloc : 0xe0800000 - 0xff7fe000 ( 495 MB) lowmem : 0xc0000000 - 0xe0000000 ( 512 MB) .init : 0xc04e7000 - 0xc0529000 ( 264 kB) .data : 0xc0413884 - 0xc04e0364 ( 818 kB) .text : 0xc0100000 - 0xc0413884 (3150 kB) Checking if this processor honours the WP bit even in supervisor mode... Ok. Calibrating delay using timer specific routine.. 4674.89 BogoMIPS (lpj=23374475) Mount-cache hash table entries: 512 CPU: After generic identify, caps: 0f80b9b9 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000001 00000000 00000000 CPU: L1 I cache: 32K, L1 D cache: 32K CPU: L3 cache: 4096K CPU: After all inits, caps: 0f80b9b9 00000000 00000000 00000140 00000001 00000000 00000000 ...
Listing 7 shows the output from another machine running Gentoo Linux, and in this example you can see some faults being reported by a running filesystem.
Listing 7. Disk error from dmesg
EXT3-fs: mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. sd 7:0:1:0: [sdf] Result: hostbyte=0x00 driverbyte=0x08 sd 7:0:1:0: [sdf] Sense Key : 0x3 [current] sd 7:0:1:0: [sdf] ASC=0x4b ASCQ=0x0 end_request: I/O error, dev sdf, sector 894959703 EXT3-fs error (device sdf1): ext3_get_inode_loc: unable to read inode block - inode=55935010, block=111869955 sd 7:0:1:0: [sdf] Result: hostbyte=0x00 driverbyte=0x08 sd 7:0:1:0: [sdf] Sense Key : 0x3 [current] sd 7:0:1:0: [sdf] ASC=0x4b ASCQ=0x0 end_request: I/O error, dev sdf, sector 894959703
From Listing 7, you can see that you probably need to check the filesystem, as there appears to be a fault on the filesystem or disk.
In this instance, the information was also reported in the syslog (Listing 8).
Listing 8. Disk error in syslog
messages:Feb 3 12:17:53 bear sd 7:0:1:0: [sdf] Result: hostbyte=0x00 driverbyte=0x08 messages:Feb 3 12:17:53 bear sd 7:0:1:0: [sdf] Sense Key : 0x3 [current] messages:Feb 3 12:17:53 bear sd 7:0:1:0: [sdf] ASC=0x4b ASCQ=0x0 messages:Feb 3 12:17:53 bear end_request: I/O error, dev sdf, sector 894959703 messages:Feb 3 12:17:53 bear EXT3-fs error (device sdf1): ext3_get_inode_loc: unable to read inode block - inode=55935014, block=111869955
But in the case of a serious fault or failure, dmesg can sometimes be your only good source of information on what is happening on your system.
User records (utmp/x, wtmp/x, lastlog)
These files contain the user login and system data logs. Information in these files is written in the special utmp format and so you will need special tools to extract the information.
The data held within these logs records login times and system startup/shutdown times, both for a historical record of the logins and for quick access to the last boot or login time used during login.
See Resources for another article within the System Administration Toolkit that contains information on how to parse these files.
The cron logs
The cron time daemon, which is responsible for running many services in the background at periodic intervals, generates its own logs of information.
On some systems, the cron log is recorded using syslog, but on Solaris and some traditional UNIX variants, the information is written to the file /var/cron/log. The information contained in the log includes the details of the command executed and when the job started and stopped.
For an example of the log contents, see Listing 9.
Listing 9. The log of cron activity
! *** cron started *** pid = 283 Sun Feb 3 16:07:10 2008 > CMD: /usr/local/bin/logmanage >/dev/null 2>&1 > root 946 c Sun Feb 3 17:10:00 2008 < root 946 c Sun Feb 3 17:10:00 2008 > CMD: /usr/local/bin/backup >/dev/null 2>&1 > root 949 c Sun Feb 3 17:11:00 2008 < root 949 c Sun Feb 3 17:11:01 2008
Parsing the contents of the log can be an effective way to determine any problems with jobs that don't seem to execute properly. It can also be a good way to check the execution time of a job. Long-running jobs, or jobs that never seem to have finished, probably indicate a problem that should be investigated.
Log file management
You should make sure that you manage the logs on your systems. Log files can grow very large and in many cases you will want to keep an historical record of events on your machine for problems.
For example, a phantom reboot or shutdown of a system should be investigated, and often the system logs are the only source of information. Although it cannot tell you everything that was taking place at the time the failure occurred, you may get information that helps, such as the precise time of the failure, or information about events that led up to the problem. Potential security problems and login attempts may indicate that your machine was being hacked and that may have led to or even been the cause of the problem.
Keeping months and months of logs is probably not necessary (although it may under some circumstances be a legal requirement). On a busy system you can easily record 25MB or more information each day to the system logs, and logs are frequently the cause of insufficient disk space errors.
Some UNIX/Linux variants include an automatic log management process (Solaris includes the /usr/sbin/logadm command), but it is not that difficult to create your own. A typical arrangement is to keep individual logs for a short period of time (for example, four weeks) and number them sequentially. For example, if you have the file messages, last week's file is in messages.1, the two-week-old file is in messages.2, and so on. This makes migration of the files very easy.
You must, however, be careful that you can successfully copy and recreate the file so that you do not lose any significant amount of information in the migration and archiving process. For the old files, to save space, you can also archive the content. Listing 10 shows a simple script that will copy and archive individual files into a suitably named directory within the original location.
Listing 10. Simple log-archiving facility
#!/bin/bash # Manage logs and archive them if necessary # Keeps 4 copies of logs cd /var/log for type in cyrus dmesg emerge.log faillog genkernel.log messages do mkdir -p $type.d cp $type.d/$type.3.bz2 $type.d/$type.4.bz2 cp $type.d/$type.2.bz2 $type.d/$type.3.bz2 cp $type.d/$type.1.bz2 $type.d/$type.2.bz2 cp $type $type.d/$type.1 && cat </dev/null >$type bzip2 -vf9 $type.d/$type.1 done
Running the script copies, recreates, and archives the log files. Note how the files are migrated; we just move the current to the week older in each case. Then finally we archive and recreate the original file.
Log files can contain a whole wealth of information, but understanding the depth of the information and the format of the files helps immensely when you are trying to diagnose and resolve problems. This article has looked at the basics of log files, their location, and the details of the contents of those files and how they can help you diagnose problems and identify issues before they become problems. The article also examined the format of the different files and the relationships between different files and their contents.
- System Administration Toolkit: Monitoring User Usage (Martin Brown, developerWorks, October 2007) looks at ways of examining the utmp and wtmp files for information about users and their activities.
- System Administration Toolkit: Monitoring Mail Usage (Martin Brown, developerWorks, December 2007) gives examples on monitoring the system log for mail deliveries and information.
- System Administration Toolkit: Monitoring Disk Usage (Martin Brown, developerWorks, June 2006) covers many techniques for investigating the disk space used on your machine.
- Read System Administration Toolkit: Standardizing your UNIX command-line tools (Martin Brown, developerWorks, May 2006) to learn how to use the same command across multiple machines.
- System Administration Toolkit: Time and event management (Martin Brown, developerWorks, May 2006) covers the creation and organization of time scripts using cron and at.
- For an article series that will teach you how to program in bash, see Bash by example, Part 1: Fundamental programming in the Bourne again shell (bash) (Daniel Robbins, developerWorks, March 2000), Bash by example, Part 2: More bash programming fundamentals (Daniel Robbins, developerWorks, April 2000), and Bash by example, Part 3: Exploring the ebuild system (Daniel Robbins, developerWorks, May 2000).
- System Administration Toolkit: Check out other parts in this series.
- Making UNIX and Linux work together (Martin Brown, developerWorks, April 2006) is a guide to getting traditional UNIX distributions and Linux working together.
- Different systems use different tools, and the IBM Redbook Solaris to Linux Migration: A Guide for System Administrators will help you identify some key tools.
- New to AIX and UNIX: Visit the New to AIX and UNIX page to learn more about AIX and UNIX.
- The developerWorks AIX and UNIX zone hosts hundreds of informative articles and introductory, intermediate, and advanced tutorials.
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