The concept of regular expressions (regexps)—a notation for describing a pattern that matches a set of strings—is common across many programs and languages. These various regexp implementations differ to some degree in the finery of their details, but the principles for learning to build regexps are common for all.
This article describes some useful tools and techniques for learning to build and hone regexps across a range of UNIX® applications, including:
Highlight matches in their context
When building a regexp, it helps to be able to see what strings the pattern
matches in the context of a data set. Consider the four-line input text of
Listing 1 and the trivial regexp
t[a-z] that matches a two-character pattern.
Listing 1. Four lines of sample text—and a regexp that matches them
$ cat midsummer I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, Where oxlips and the nodding violet grows, Quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine, With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine. $ grep t[a-z] midsummer I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, Where oxlips and the nodding violet grows, Quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine, With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine. $
Because it finds at least one match to its two-character pattern on every line,
grep command outputs every line in the input file.
But which characters exactly on those lines of input did the regexp match?
With a trivial regexp such as this one, it's easy to confidently eyeball it yourself. But as you build intricate regexps and have large datasets or input files, it can become considerably more difficult to know which string or strings a regexp might match. It's useful to be able to see exactly what text is being matched on each line. And one way to look at your regexps in context is to mark them in the output.
You can do that with several applications, including
sed, and Emacs.
Highlighting with grep
Figure 1. Matched strings colorized in grep
If your terminal supports color, this is a useful way to view exactly which strings your regexp is matching.
Highlighting with sed
You can also do regexp highlighting in
sed, the stream
outputs a copy of the input with all instances of regexp enclosed in brackets. Listing 2 shows its output with the sample text.
Listing 2. Matched strings marked in sed
$ sed 's/t[a-z]/[&]/g' midsummer I know a bank where [th]e wild [th]yme blows, Where oxlips and [th]e nodding violet grows, Qui[te] over-canopied wi[th] luscious woodbine, Wi[th] sweet musk-roses and wi[th] eglan[ti]ne. $
You can mark the regexps in other ways, too. If your input is a Groff document,
you can add boldface to the regexp and send the document to
groff for processing:
$ sed 's/t[a-z]/\\fB&\\fP/g' infile.roff | groff -
You can also write a short
sed program to output
matches in color. If your shell supports escape sequences, you can highlight all
the regexps in the context of the file. Because escape sequences are cumbersome to
type, you'll undoubtedly want to run it from a script, as shown in
Listing 3. A sed script that highlights matched patterns in color
#!/bin/sh # highlights regexp pattern in input file # usage: hre regexp file sed 's/'$1'/^[[34m&^[[37m/g' < $2
^[ that appears twice in the listing is a literal
escape character, so you'll have to input this listing with an editor that
supports entering literal characters, such as Emacs (where you'd type
C-q ESC to enter it). The
37 are the Bash escape codes for specifying the
colors blue and white, respectively.
To make the script executable, type:
$ chmod 744 hre
Then run it, as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Matched strings colorized in sed
While you can specify both the highlight and plain colors using this method, it
has its caveats. The script shown in Listing 3, for example,
works only when the plain text of the terminal is white because it restores the
text to that color. If your terminal uses a different color for plain text
display, change the escape code in the script. (For example,
30 is black.)
Highlighting with Emacs
In new versions of the GNU Emacs editor, the
isearch-backward-regexp functions highlight all matches
in the buffer. If you've installed a recent version of Emacs on your system, try
- Start Emacs by typing:
$ emacs midsummer
M-xis Emacs notation for the Meta-x combination, which you type on most systems either by pressing and holding the Alt key, pressing X, and then releasing both keys or by pressing the Esc key, releasing it, and then pressing the X key.
- Type the regexp to search for:
Because the search is incremental, Emacs begins highlighting matches as you type a single character—in this case, when you press the T key, all the T characters in the buffer are highlighted. Notice that as soon as you begin to type the bracketed character list, the highlighting disappears, and Emacs reports in the minibuffer that it has insufficient input to show a match.
Your Emacs session should look like Figure 3.
Figure 3. An Emacs buffer showing a regexp in the context
C-x C-cto exit Emacs.
You type this combination by pressing and holding the Ctrl key, pressing X, and then pressing and holding the Ctrl key and pressing C.
isearch-backward-regexp functions are typically bound
keystrokes. (To create them, press and hold the Alt key, the Ctrl
key, and either the S or R key.)
Show only the matches, not the lines
There's another approach to the problem of pattern context, and that is to output
only the matches themselves, not the entire lines in which they occur. There are
ways to do this with
Show only the matches with grep
--only-matching option (also
so that it outputs not the entire lines containing a match to the regexp but
only those matches themselves. As with the
--color option described above,
this feature appears in newer versions of some
implementations, including GNU
grep, which is open
source and available for many operating systems.
This option is for collecting data that matches a regexp—it's great for harvesting IP addresses, URLs, names, e-mail addresses, words, and the like—but it's also a great way to learn regexps. For example, Listing 4 shows how to use it to harvest all the words from the sample text of Listing 1. It outputs each word, one to a line.
Listing 4. Harvesting all the words from the sample file
$ egrep -o '[A-Za-z]+' midsummer I know a bank where the wild thyme blows Where oxlips and the nodding violet grows Quite over canopied with luscious woodbine With sweet musk roses and with eglantine $
In fact, when you're constructing a particularly complicated regexp for a certain job, using this option is a simple way to test it to make sure that you've built it correctly. You can often see right away if your regexp needs fixing.
Say you want to output all the words in the test file containing the string
th, and you've built the regexp shown in
Listing 5 to do that.
Listing 5. Outputting all words with "th," take one
$ egrep -o 'th[a-z]*' midsummer the thyme the th th th $
Oh, that's not working. You can see right away that some of the matches in the
output aren't words at all. Better try again: Listing 6 takes
into account any letters in the words that might come before the
Listing 6. Outputting all words with "th," take two
$ egrep -o '[a-z]*th[a-z]*' midsummer the thyme the with ith with $
Much better, but still a little off. You see that one "ith" shows that the regexp
didn't match uppercase letters. Rectify this by pulling out the
-i option, as shown in Listing 7.
Listing 7. Outputting all words with "th," take three
$ egrep -o -i '[a-z]*th[a-z]*' midsummer the thyme the with With with
The use of
-o and some test data are helpful in
building regexps, because you might have assumed that the regexp worked as lines
containing "th" were matched. But you didn't know that the expression was actually
a little off.
Show only the matches with sed
You can do similar things in
sed using the command:
to match a
sed regexp. This command only outputs the
matched patterns from the input, not the lines of the input that contain a match.
However, it only outputs the last instance on a given line, as shown in
Listing 8. Outputting only matched characters with sed
$ sed -n 's/.*\(th[a-z]\).*/\1/p' midsummer thy the $ grep -o th[a-z] midsummer the thy the $
Show only the matches with Perl
Regexps are also popularly used in the Perl language, but Perl regexps are
different from those you'd build using
pcretest tool lets you test Perl regexps. You can use
this tool to familiarize yourself with the Perl-compatible regular expression
(PCRE) library and to debug or test regexps that you build with it.
The regexp is enclosed in slash (/) characters as usual and can be followed with modifiers that alter the behavior of the search. Common regexp modifiers are provided in Table 1.
Table 1. Common regexp modifiers for pcretest
|This modifier supports Unicode (UTF-8) character sets.|
|This modifier searches for global matches (more than one on a line).|
|This modifier ignores differences in case.|
|This modifier searches over multiple lines.|
|This modifier uses extended Perl regexps.|
pcretest interactively, as shown in
Listing 9. Testing a regexp with pcretest
$ pcretest PCRE version 6.7 04-Jul-2006 re> /[a-z]*th[a-z]*/ig data> With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine. 0: With 0: with data> Ctrl-c $
You can also run
pcretest with an input file. Input
files contain a regexp to test on a single line followed by any number of lines of
data to test. You can have multiple regexps and their respective data by
separating them with an empty line;
reading regexps and searching the following lines of data until it reaches end of
If you give the name of a second file,
the output to that file. Otherwise, it writes to standard output, as shown in
Listing 10. Running pcretest from an input file
$ cat midsummer.pre /w[hi]|th/gi I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, Where oxlips and the nodding violet grows, Quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine, With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine. $ pcretest midsummer.pre PCRE version 6.7 04-Jul-2006 /w[hi]|th/gi I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, 0: wh 0: th 0: wi 0: th Where oxlips and the nodding violet grows, 0: Wh 0: th Quite over-canopied with luscious woodbine, 0: wi 0: th With sweet musk-roses and with eglantine. 0: Wi 0: th 0: wi 0: th $
Call up a wizard
The txt2regex script is an interactive, cross-platform regexp "wizard" built for the Bash shell. When you run it, it asks you a series of questions about the pattern you want to match and then it builds valid regexps for any number of two dozen different applications:
Besides helping you interactively build regexps, txt2regex provides a concise summary of regexp syntax for various languages and applications, a list of "ready regexs" to match common patterns, and a handy chart of regexp metacharacters.
Build a regexp
To build a regexp for one or more of txt2regex's
applications, give the names of those
applications in a comma-delineated list as an argument to the
Start by trying to build the trivial regexp given back in the Highlight matches in their context section, which matched the T character followed by a lowercase letter:
- Start txt2regex and specify regexps for
sed, and Emacs:
$ txt2regex --prog grep,sed,emacs
- You want to match the T character on any part of the line, not just at the
beginning of the line, so type
2to select "in any part of the line."
2again to select "a specific character" and then type
twhen asked which character to match.
You now have to answer how many times you want to match it.
1to specify exactly once.
- Match any lowercase letter by typing
6to choose "a special combination" and then type
bto match lowercase letters. Type
.to exit the combination sub-menu.
- Match the lowercase letter exactly once by typing
As you go through the procedure, txt2regex builds the regexp for each of the three chosen applications and displays them near the top of the screen. Now that you've selected exactly what you want, you can see the desired regexps for all three applications in Figure 4.
Figure 4. Building a regexp with txt2regex
.. to quit. The list of regexps will remain on
Yes, all three of the regexps happen to be written as the identical
t[a-z], but that's only because this is a simple regexp
and the three chosen applications have a similar regexp syntax. It won't always be
the case that the regexps you build look the same for all chosen applications.
Say, for example, that you want to construct the two regexps you used in the Show only the matches, not the lines section. The first one was a single word of uppercase or lowercase letters:
- Start txt2regex with no options:
2to match on any part of the line.
6to give a special combination and then type
bto select all uppercase and lowercase letters.
.to return to the main menu and then type
4to specify that it should be matched one or more times.
With no options, txt2regex defaults to build regexps for the
When you run through the above, you'll find that the first four applications use
the same regexp you used with
Listing 4, but the regexps for
vim are just a little different. That's because
these applications use a slightly different metacharacter notation,
as described below.
.. to exit the program; the regexps for
the various applications will remain listed on your terminal. You can use them as
displayed or edit them to refine them further. For instance, what about matching
words containing an apostrophe (') character—don't, who're, e'er,
owner's, 'cause, Joe's, and so on? The regexp you've just built won't match
them properly, as you'll see by showing only the matches (see
Listing 11. Improperly matching words with apostrophes
$ echo "Don't miss a word, just 'cause it's wrong." | egrep [A-Za-z]+ Don t miss a word just cause it s wrong $
You'll want to add the hyphen character to that bracketed list and demonstrate it again, as shown in Listing 12. Notice that you have to quote the regexp now.
Listing 12. Properly matching words with apostrophes
$ echo "Don't miss a word, just 'cause it's wrong." | egrep "[A-Za-z']+" Don't miss a word just 'cause it's wrong $
The next regexp you used in the
Show only the matches, not the
lines section was for a
single word containing "th" anywhere in the word. You had used regexps for
perl; now try building it for plain
- Start txt2regex:
/to select the programs and then type
hkopqstx.so that only a regexp for
grepwill be built.
26ab.3to select zero or more uppercase or lowercase letters anywhere on the line.
2t12h1to follow that with the characters T and H, each occurring exactly once.
6ab.3to follow that with zero or more uppercase or lowercase letters.
..to exit the program.
You can test the regexp you've just built, as shown in Listing 13.
Listing 13. Matching a "th"-containing word with grep
$ grep -o [A-Za-z]*th[A-Za-z]* midsummer the thyme the with With with $
Get a summary of regexp options
--showinfo option just outputs a brief summary of
information about building regexps for a particular program or language. Included
in the output is the name and version of the application, regexp metacharacters,
default escape metacharacter, metacharacters that require escaping by default,
whether you can use tab characters in bracketed lists, and whether it supports the
Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) bracket expressions.
If you're a developer who works on several applications, this is a good way to get a quick summary of the regexp rules for a particular application, as shown in Listing 14.
Listing 14. Getting a summary of regexp rules with txt2regex
Get a ready regex
--make option is described by its author as "a
remedy for headaches." It outputs a regexp for one of several common patterns that
are given as arguments, as listed in Table 2.
Table 2. List of ready regexps available in txt2regex
|This argument matches dates in |
|This argument matches dates in |
|This argument matches dates in |
|This argument matches time in |
|This argument matches time in |
|This argument matches time in |
|This argument matches any positive or negative integer.|
|This argument matches any positive or negative integer with an optional floating-point value.|
|This argument matches any positive or negative integer with optional commas and an optional floating-point value.|
For example, you can use this to get a ready regexp for any valid hour in military time, as shown in Listing 15.
Listing 15. Getting a date regexp with txt2regex
$ txt2regex --make hour3 RegEx perl : ([0-9]|2):[0-9] RegEx php : ([0-9]|2):[0-9] RegEx postgres: ([0-9]|2):[0-9] RegEx python : ([0-9]|2):[0-9] RegEx sed : \([0-9]\|2\):[0-9] RegEx vim : \([0-9]\|2\):[0-9] $
Know your metacharacters
Another useful txt2regex option is
outputs a table consisting of all the metacharacters used in building regexps for
the supported applications. This option is shown in
Listing 16. Displaying all metacharacters with txt2regex
Study the docs
It pays to read the manuals. Your system might have a lot more documentation, including man pages, on building and using regexps than you might realize.
other tools like them have man pages that describe their regexp syntax and give
examples. If you have GNU versions installed on your system, they are also likely
to have Info documentation that contains much more information than the usual man
pages—whole user manuals are sometimes installed there. For
example, if you have GNU
sed installed and you have the
info binary, you can read the manual:
$ info sed
The Perl documentation (usually packaged and distributed separately from the main Perl source or binary package) contains a comprehensive man page on Perl regexps:
$ man perlre
And there's even more to that subject. The
man page (distributed with the
as described above) also describes Perl regexps.
regex man page, available on many UNIX
systems, provides information on building POSIX regexps. The information on this
man page is taken from Henry Spencer's
A lot of tools and methods are available on UNIX systems for regexp building. You've just learned a few of the best of them.
These tools give powerful ways to craft, test, and hone regexps. Using these tools and techniques on a UNIX system is probably the best way to learn to build complex regexps. And it's also fun!
- "Hone your regexp pattern-building skills" (Michael Stutz, developerWorks, July 2006): This article describes several regular expressions for system administration that you might find helpful.
- "Speaking UNIX, Part 9: Regular expressions" (Martin Streicher, developerWorks, April 2007): This article is a short primer on the ABCs of regular expressions.
- Check out other articles and tutorials written by Michael Stutz:
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grepfor your operating system.
- PCRE: Download a free copy of PCRE.
- txt2regex script: Download a free copy of txt2regex script.
- regex: Download a free copy of Henry Spencer's regular expression libraries.
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