The Python programming community is well-known for their advocacy of unit testing and functional testing. Not only do these practices help assure that components and applications are written right the first time, but that they stay working through months and years of further tweaks and improvements.
This article is the second in a three-part series
on modern Python testing frameworks.
The first article in this series
and began to describe how they can change the way
that Python projects write and maintain their tests.
This second article details
the differences in how the three frameworks are invoked,
in how they examine a project to discover tests,
and how they select which of those tests then get run.
Finally, the third article will look
at all of the reporting features that have been developed
to let testing support more and more powerful techniques.
The dark ages of Python testing
Python project testing
was once a very ad-hoc and personal affair.
A developer might start by writing each batch of tests
as a separate Python script.
Later, he might write a script with a name like
that imported and ran all of his tests together.
But, however well he automated the process,
his approach was unavoidably idiosyncratic:
every developer who joined the project had to discover
where the test scripts lived and how to invoke them.
If a particular Python developer
found himself working on, say, a dozen different projects,
then he might have a dozen different testing commands to remember.
Danger was incurred by the fact that the
or whatever a particular project called it,
probably also did a manual import of all of the other tests.
If this central list of tests became out of date,
usually because a developer added a new test suite
which he ran by hand and forgot to add to the central script,
then entire files full of of tests could be omitted
from the last test suite runs that were performed
before a Python package was put into production.
A final drawback to this testing anarchy is that it required every test file to contain the boilerplate code necessary to run as a separate command. If you look through much Python documentation, or even inside of some Python projects today, you will see dozens of testing examples like this:
# test_old.py - The old way of doing things import unittest class TruthTest(unittest.TestCase): def testTrue(self): assert True == 1 def testFalse(self): assert False == 0 if __name__ == '__main__': unittest.main()
The first article in this series
has already addressed why
TestCase class-based testing
is often not necessary in the modern world.
turn your attention to those last two lines of code:
what are they there to accomplish?
The answer is that they detect when this
has been run stand-alone from the command line,
in which case they run a
unittest convenience function
that will search through the module for tests and run them.
This is what lets this file of tests be run separately
from the project-wide test script.
Many of the drawbacks to copying identical code like this
into dozens, or hundreds, of different test modules
should be quite obvious.
One drawback that might be less obvious
is the lack of standardization that this encourages.
test_main() function is not quite clever enough
to detect the tests of some particular module,
then that module will probably be extended with additional behaviors
that do not match how the other test suites operate.
Each module can therefore wind up with subtly different conventions
for how test classes are named,
how they operate,
and how they are run.
The space age of Python testing
Thanks to the arrival of major Python testing frameworks, all of the problems outlined above have been solved and, as we will see, they have been solved in roughly the same way by each of the frameworks.
To begin with, all three test frameworks provide some standard way of running tests from your operating system command line. This eliminates the need for every Python project to keep a global testing script somewhere in their code base.
as one would expect,
has the most idiosyncratic mechanism for running tests:
since Zope developers tend to set up their projects using
they tend to install their testing script
zc.recipe.testrunner recipe in the
But the result is quite consistent across different projects:
in every Zope project that I have ever come across,
the development buildout creates a
which can be counted on to invoke the project's tests.
nose projects made a more interesting decision.
They each offer a command-line tool
that completely removes the need
for each project to have its own testing command:
# Run "py.test" on the project # in the current directory... $ py.test # Run "nose" on the project # in the current directory... $ nosetests
even have a few command-line options that they share in common,
that makes them print the name of each test as it is executed.
The day might soon arrive
when a Python programmer,
simply by being familiar with these two tools,
will be able to run the tests
of most publicly available Python packages.
But, there is one last level of standardization possible!
Most Python projects these days
include a top-level
setup.py file with their source code
that supports commands like:
# Common commands supported by setup.py files $ python setup.py build $ python setup.py install
Many Python projects these days use the
to support extra
beyond those available through standard Python,
test command that runs all of a project's tests:
# If a project's setup.py uses "setuptools" # then it will provide a "test" command too $ python setup.py test
This would be the pinnacle of standardization:
if projects all supported
then developers would be presented with a uniform interface
for running the testing suites of all Python packages.
setup.py by providing an entry point
that invokes the same test-running routines
as are used by the
# A setup.py file that uses "nose" for testing from setuptools import setup setup( # ... # package metadata # ... setup_requires = ['nose'], test_suite = 'nose.collector', )
most developers will probably keep using
even when their project provides a
setup.py entry point,
nosetests provides more powerful command-line options.
But for a new developer
who just wants to check
whether a package is even working on his platform
before he tries to track down a bug or add a new feature,
test_suite entry point is a wonderful convenience.
Automatic Python module discovery
A key feature of
is that they all search a project's source code tree
in an attempt to find all of its tests
without having to have them centrally listed.
But the rules by which they discover tests are somewhat different,
and might be worth reviewing before making a choice
between the frameworks.
The first step that a testing framework takes
is to select which directories it will search
for files that might contain tests.
Note that all three frameworks start in the base directory
of your entire project;
if you are testing a package called
then they all start looking for tests
in the parent directory that contains
The three frameworks make somewhat different choices,
about which directories they search:
zope.testingtool descends recursively into all directories that are Python packages, meaning that they contain an
__init__.pyfile (which is what signals to Python that they can be imported with the
importstatement). This means that data and code in non-package directories is safe from being inspected, but, on the other hand, this means that every test you write will be one that a programmer could theoretically reach with the
importstatement if he wanted to. Some programmers will find this uncomfortable, and wish that they could place tests somewhere that made them invisible to normal users of their package.
py.testcommand descends into every directory and sub-directory in your project, whether a directory looks like a Python package or not. Beware that it appears to have a bug when two adjacent directories share tests of the same name. If, for example, an adjacent
dir2/test.pyfile each have a test called
py.testwill run the first test twice and ignore the second test entirely! If you are writing tests for
py.testand hiding them beneath non-package directories, be careful that you keep their names unique.
nosetest runner implements a middle way between the other two tools: it descends into every Python package, but is only willing to examine directories, if they have the word
testin their name. This means that if you want to write “Keep Out” across a directory, so that
nosewill not try delving into it to find tests, you can just be careful not to include the word
testin its name. Unlike
noseoperates correctly even if adjacent directories contain tests with the same name (but it is still helpful to keep test names distinct, so that you can tell which is which when looking at test results with the
Once they have selected which directories to search,
the three testing tools have remarkably similar behavior:
they all look for Python modules (that is, files ending with
matching some specific pattern.
zope.testing tool by default
uses the regular expression
which will only find files named
and ignore all others.
You can either use a command-line option
buildout.cfg to specify an alternative regular expression:
# Snippet of a buildout.cfg file that searches for tests # in any Python module starting with "test" or "ftest". [test] recipe = zc.recipe.testrunner eggs = my_package defaults = ['--tests-pattern', 'f?test']
py.test tools is more rigid,
and always looks for Python modules
whose names either start with
or end with
nosetests command is more flexible,
and uses a regular expression
(which, for the curious, is “((?:^|[\b_\.-])[Tt]est)”)
that selects any modules
that either start with the word
or have that word following a word boundary.
You can specify a different regular expression
either at the command line with the
or by setting the option in your project's
Which approach is best?
While some developers always prefer flexibility
and, really, it would be a terrible hassle
zope.testing tool's interests could not be broadened
out to more modules than just ones with a
I actually prefer
py.test in this case.
All projects that use
will necessarily share a common convention
for how their tests are named,
making them easier to read and maintain for other programmers.
When either of the other frameworks is used instead,
then reading or creating test files will take two steps:
first, you have to go look at what this particular project
uses as the regular expression,
and only then can you start usefully inspecting its code.
And if you are working on several projects at once,
then you might find yourself having to keep up
with several different test-file naming conventions simultaneously.
Including docfiles and doctests in a test suite
The obtrusive three-chevron Python prompt,
has wound up being a wonderfully obvious signal,
in a longer document,
that the writing is illustrating what should happen
at the Python prompt.
This can occur in stand-alone text files
that are acting as documentation,
as we saw in the first article in this series:
Doctest for truth and falsehood ------------------------------- The truth values in Python, named "True" and "False", are equivalent to the Boolean numbers one and zero. >>> True == 1 True >>> False == 0 True
Such illustrations can also occur right inside of source code, in the docstring of a module, class, or function:
def count_vowels(s): """Count the number of vowels in a string. >>> count_vowels('aardvark') 3 >>> count_vowels('THX') 0 """ return len( c for c in s if c in 'aeiou')
When these tests occur in a text file, as in the first example, then the file is called a docfile. When they occur inside of docstrings inside of Python source code, like in the second example, they are called doctests.
Since docfiles and doctests are very common ways
to write documentation that itself serves as a test
(and that will also signal when it has gone out of date
and become incorrect),
they are directly supported by both
zope.testing will have to manually create
Python test cases for each file
by using the
DocTestSuite class from the standard
As with its rules for finding test modules,
py.test framework has fixed procedures for supporting doctests
that do not seem to be configurable,
choosing standardization across projects
rather than flexibility within particular ones.
- If you activate its
doctestplugin, then it will look for doctests both in the documentation strings of all of your Python modules (even the ones without the word
testin their names), and also in any text files whose names both start with
test_and end with the
- If you activate its
restdocplugin, then not only do any doctests in your
.txtfiles get tested, but
py.testwill insist that every
.txtfile in your project be a valid Restructured Text file, and will complain if any of them cause parsing errors. The plugin can also, through further command line options, be asked to check any URLs that you specify in your documentation, and to go ahead and generate HTML versions of each of your
A very similar set of features are supported by
but, as you are probably guessing,
it provides a bit more flexibility.
--doctest-testsis the least intrusive option, and simply asks
noseto watch out for doctests in the docstrings of the test modules that it is already examining.
--with-doctestoption is more aggressive, and asks
noseto look through all of your normal modules, the ones that it does not think are tests, but that contain normal code and find and run any doctests that occur inside of their docstrings.
--doctest-extensionlets you specify a filename extension of your own choice (most developers I know would choose
.doctest). This asks
noseto read through all text files in your project with the given extension, running and verifying any doctests that it finds.
have a quite similar feature set here,
I actually prefer the approach of
I like using the non-standard
for all of my Restructured Text files,
so that I can teach my text editor to recognize them
and give them special syntax highlighting.
nose framework and executable modules
There is one caveat that should be made about the
it will, by default, avoid Python modules that are marked as executable.
(You can mark a file as an executable command on Linux®
with something like a
nose framework ignores such files
because modules that are designed to be run
straight from the command line
might perform actions that make them unsafe to
You can make commands safe to import, however,
by protecting the actual actions they perform
if statement that checks whether the module
is being run or simply imported:
#!/usr/bin/env python # Sample Python command if __name__ == '__main__': print "This has been run from the command line!"
If you take this precaution in every one of your commands,
and therefore know them to be safe to import,
then you can give
--exe command-line option
and it will examine such modules anyway.
I actually prefer the behavior of
py.test in this case:
by ignoring whether Python modules are executable,
it winds up with rules that are simpler than those of
and that force good practices
(like protecting command logic with an
But if you want to experiment with using a test framework
against a legacy application
perhaps containing dozens of executable modules
of whose code quality you are unsure,
nose does seem like the safer tool.
The article has now covered all of the details about how these three Python testing frameworks examine your code base and select which modules they think contain tests. By providing automated discovery based on uniform conventions, the choice of any of the three major testing frameworks will both help you write more consistent test suites that can be detected and examined by machine. But what do the web frameworks do next? What do they look for inside of those modules? That is the topic of the third article in this series!
- The AIX and UNIX developerWorks zone provides a wealth of information relating to all aspects of AIX systems administration.
- developerWorks technical events and webcasts: Stay current with developerWorks technical events and webcasts.
- Podcasts: Tune in and catch up with IBM technical experts.
- Article series: Make sure to read all parts of this article series on Python testing.
- py.test: Learn more abut this popular tool.
- nose: Supports the same test idioms as py.test.
- zope.testing: Provides a uniform way to discover and run tests.
- The documentation accompanying Python's standard library is really the best place to look for up-to-date details on unittest and doctest.
- Ned Batchelder's coverage.py module: A Python module that measures code coverage during Python execution.
- C. Titus Brown's figleaf coverage module: A Python code coverage analysis tool.
- Standard Python "hotshot" profiler provides a nicer interface to the _hotshot C module
- z3c.testsetup: Provides a test setup for Zope 3 projects.
- Zope buildout system is a Python applications build system.
- Standard Python distutils module: Describs how to use the Distutils to make Python modules and extensions.
- PEAK Setuptools
- Wiki of Python testing tools
- 2004 IBM DeveloperWorks article on unittest and doctest
- Participate in the AIX and UNIX forums:
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