Virtual access to the data center
Getting physical access to servers is becoming increasingly difficult. Systems are often located in lights-out data centers in remote locations. And even if you do get to the unmarked building that hosts your machines, security is getting tighter. In practice, installing your system remotely is usually a better option. Standing at a console in a chilly data center with systems that beep and whirr as your only company is a luxury you can do without.
In this article, you learn how to build an IBM® Power Systems™ server remotely. The procedure assumes that your server will be managed by a hardware management console (HMC) that allows you to install and configure LPARs. The article covers the high-level steps involved and provides links to many resources to help you with more detailed documentation (see Resources).
So far, no one has worked out how a new server can be racked up and cabled without anyone actually being there. No getting around it—someone has to install the hardware. If you're lucky, this will be somebody else's problem.
Assume that somebody else (like, the hardware person) has verified power and cooling requirements, racked up your server, and cabled it to the network and your storage subsystem. The HMC has been turned on and is on the network. (To learn how that's done, see Resources section.)
Remote access via the HMC
At this point, you're almost ready to take over the installation by remote control. First, however, the hardware person needs to set some simple menu options on the HMC. He or she begins by logging in to the HMC as a user with hmcsuperadmin rights, such as hscroot. From there, he or she steps through the HMC Management menus to enable the following remote-access capabilities:
- Browser access via the HMC:
- Select Manage User Profiles and Access.
- Select a user who has hmcsuperadmin permissions.
- Select User.
- Select Modify/View User.
- Select User Properties.
- Select Allow remote access via the web.
- HMC Remote command execution via SSH:
- Select Remote Command execution.
- Select Enable remote command execution using the ssh facility.
- Console sessions on LPARs:
- Select Remote Virtual Terminal.
- Select Enable remote virtual terminal connections.
- HMC remote operation:
- Set Remote Operation to Enabled.
Back at your desk, far away from the data center, you should now be able to fire up a supported browser and log in to the HMC as hscroot (or an equivalent user). At this point, you're ready to add a managed system and power on that server, if those tasks haven't already been performed. You can do this through the HMC (see Resources).
VIO server first, then NIM
Okay, so now you've got a brand-new server. It's powered on and begging to be put to work. Where to from here?
If you've been working on AIX for a while, you might be thinking of using network installation manager (NIM) to install your AIX LPARs. But to do that, you need a NIM server, which you may not have if it's a green-field site. You could always build your NIM server by inserting the AIX installation media, but that may not be an option for you—the data center may be on another continent and in a different time zone. There's no one there to insert DVDs for you. So, how do you proceed?
In my view, the smartest way to build a Power System server remotely is to install a VIO server, first. You can do that without physical media if you download the VIO server installation file from IBM ESS (see Resources for details). This file should reside on an NFS server that is accessible from the HMC.
When your VIO server installation image is available, you can create a VIO server partition
using the HMC GUI (see Resources). Then, you can connect
to the HMC command line using SSH. The HMC
command allows you to install the VIO server by means of an NFS mount. You can run
installios command interactively, stepping through a
series of questions regarding the network setup of the VIO server. Listing 1
provides an example. The location of the NFS-mounted installation image appears
Listing 1. installios example
The following objects of type "managed system" were found. Please select one: 1. Server-8233-E8B-SN100273P Enter a number (1): 1 The following objects of type "virtual I/O server partition" were found. Please select one: 1. VIO_1 2. VIO_2 Enter a number (1-2): 1 The following objects of type "profile" were found. Please select one: 1. Default Enter a number: 1 Enter the source of the installation images [/dev/cdrom]: nfs01:/Virtual_IO_Server.iso Enter the client's intended IP address: 220.127.116.11 Enter the client's intended subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Enter the client's gateway: 18.104.22.168 Enter the client's speed : 1000 Enter the client's duplex [full]: full Would you like to configure the client's network after the installation [yes]/no? yes
Create a virtual media library
When you've got a VIO server, you can create a virtual media library that lets you store images in ISO format, so that they can then be made available to the VIO clients. By loading the AIX installation image into the virtual media library, you can boot and install your first AIX LPAR. Once that's done you can configure this LPAR as your NIM server.
Note: You can create the virtual media library via the HMC GUI or
on the VIO server's command line using the
Build AIX from the virtual media library
Now it's time to install your first AIX partition. Download the AIX installation image (if you haven't already), and copy it to the virtual media library. You use this image to boot and install your first LPAR. This LPAR will be your NIM server, which you can use for installing your other LPARs.
Next, create the LPAR on the HMC (see Resources). As this is your NIM server, ensure that it has sufficient resources—in particular, disk space.
You can assign a virtual optical drive to the LPAR via the HMC (see Resources) or on the VIO server's command line. Load the AIX installation image onto the virtual optical drive and use it to boot and install AIX. As the installation image is on a file-backed device on disk, you'll be surprised how quickly and easily the installation can be done. The documentation on installing AIX (see Resources) steps you through the multitude of options for installing, migrating, and configuring your AIX LPARs.
Build a NIM server
After you've finished building the first LPAR, you can configure it as a NIM server (see Resources for details). NIM provides an environment for installing and managing AIX LPARs over the network: You can use NIM to build and back up your AIX LPARs and VIO servers. The Redbook NIM from A to Z (see Resources for a link) provides some easy steps for building a NIM environment and includes best practices and a helpful plan for building an AIX standard operating environment.
Build AIX LPARs
When it comes to installing your other AIX LPARs, you can build them using NIM.
A wealth of information is available on installing and booting with NIM (see
Resources for links). If you need to create other NIM
resources that are not available in the AIX installation image, you can use the
virtual media library to do it. In fact, you could use the library to build all your
AIX LPARs, if you wanted to. The virtual media library has been called the smart
man's NIM: It's easy to learn and works well for the installation of software
in a virtualized environment. It's also a quick way of cloning AIX images that
have been backed up using the
Many more configuration options are available once the basic LPARs are built. You
might need to install new packages that you have downloaded or update AIX
with the latest fix pack. If you use the
command to convert the software to ISO format files, you can copy them onto
the virtual media library. You should be able to do all of this from your desk,
even if the server is in another hemisphere.
Remote installation road map
It may be a bit daunting thinking about building a system you'll never get to meet in person, but it makes a lot of sense and saves a great deal of time. It also avoids unnecessary travel and eliminates the need for ordering and storing physical media. Now that you've seen the steps involved, stand back and have a look at the view. Here's a road map of where you've been on remote control tours:
- Install the hardware.
- Configure the HMC for remote access.
- Discover the managed system.
- Power it on.
- Create a VIO server:
- Download VIO server and AIX installation media to an NFS server.
- Create a VIO LPAR profile.
- Install the VIO server from the HMC command line.
- Configure the VIO server.
- Create the VIO virtual media library.
- Copy the AIX installation image to your VIO server.
- Create the NIM server LPAR:
- Boot from the AIX installation image in the virtual media library.
- Configure the LPAR as a NIM server.
- Create other AIX LPARs using NIM or the VIO virtual media library.
- Take a bow.
From the comfort of your desk
With the HMC, the VIO server, and NIM, the days of gathering a bunch of DVDs or CDs, donning your winter woollies, and heading for the data center are behind you. These days, you really can install and manage your IBM Power System server without ever seeing it.
- See the official documentation for instructions on Installing and Configuring the Hardware Management Console.
- To add a managed system via the HMC, see Completing server setup if you have an HMC.
- Use the HMC to power on a managed system.
- Using SSH to access the HMC for executing commands can be quicker, as explained in Hardware Management Console 101.
- To set up, manage, and troubleshoot AIX, IBM i, Linux®, and VIO server LPARs, see Logical Partitioning.
See the instructions for Installing
the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC and syntax for the
- The VIO server cheat sheet (Christian Pruett, developerWorks, July 2010) takes you through setting up the VIO server.
- The PowerVM wiki has some great resources, particularly to do with setting up the VIO server.
- For hands-on demos on plenty of topics related to AIX and virtualization on Power Systems, have a look at the PowerVM wiki movies. For a short walk through creating an LPAR, see movie 38.
- The VIO server can be configured in many ways. There are many practical examples in the Redpaper Using Advanced POWER Virtualization on IBM System p Virtual I/O Server Deployment Examples.
- You can create the VIO server virtual media repository and use it to store and load optical media files.
- You can use the HMC GUI to create a virtual optical drive.
- To see how to build and configure a VIO server, have a look at the PowerVM Virtual I/O Server Configuration Cookbook. The video gives step-by-step instructions with a helpful commentary.
- If you want two VIO servers for redundancy, the network configuration is described in the IBM Technote on How to Setup SEA Failover on DUAL VIO servers.
- Check out the PowerVM Virtual I/O Server wiki for an overview of VIO server installation and configuration.
- For documentation on NIM, see the AIX 7.1 Network Installation Management pages.
- The IBM Redbook NIM from A to Z offers basic to advanced usage of NIM.
- AIX and UNIX developerWorks zone: The AIX and UNIX zone provides a wealth of information relating to all aspects of AIX systems administration and expanding your UNIX skills.
- New to AIX and UNIX? Visit the New to AIX and UNIX page to learn more.
- Technology bookstore: Browse the technology bookstore for books on this and other technical topics.
Get products and technologies
- You can download the AIX, VIO server, and IBM i installation ISO images from Entitled Software Support. You'll need to prove that you're entitled by providing your IBM Customer number, your machine type and serial number, and SWMA. Log in with your IBM ID and click the Software Downloads link.
- My AIX Down Under blog on IBM developerWorks has lots of tips and practical examples for AIX administrators. There is material suitable for beginners as well as some more advanced topics.
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